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2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327208

ABSTRACT

Background Reports of SARS-CoV-2 causing laryngotracheobronchitis (commonly known as croup) have been limited to small case series. Early reports suggest the Omicron (B.1.1.529) strain of SARS-CoV-2 (the dominant circulating US strain since the week of 12/25/2021) replicates more efficiently in the conducting airways. This may increase the risk of a croup phenotype in children as they have smaller airway calibers. Methods Description of the incidence, change over time, and characteristics of children with SARS-CoV-2 and upper airway infection (UAI) diagnoses within the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) before and during the rise of the Omicron variant. We compare the demographics, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes of hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 positive children with and without UAI. Results SARS-CoV-2 positive UAI cases increased to the highest number per month (N = 170) in December 2021 as the Omicron variant became dominant. Of 15,806 hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2, 1.5% (234/15,806) had an UAI diagnosis. Those with UAI were more likely to be male, younger, white, have asthma and develop severe disease as compared to those without UAI. Conclusions Pediatric acute UAI cases have increased during the Omicron variant surge with many developing severe disease. Improved understanding of this emerging clinical phenotype could aid in therapeutic decision-making and healthcare resource planning.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(2): e2143151, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1669321

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding of SARS-CoV-2 infection in US children has been limited by the lack of large, multicenter studies with granular data. Objective: To examine the characteristics, changes over time, outcomes, and severity risk factors of children with SARS-CoV-2 within the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of encounters with end dates before September 24, 2021, was conducted at 56 N3C facilities throughout the US. Participants included children younger than 19 years at initial SARS-CoV-2 testing. Main Outcomes and Measures: Case incidence and severity over time, demographic and comorbidity severity risk factors, vital sign and laboratory trajectories, clinical outcomes, and acute COVID-19 vs multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), and Delta vs pre-Delta variant differences for children with SARS-CoV-2. Results: A total of 1 068 410 children were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 167 262 test results (15.6%) were positive (82 882 [49.6%] girls; median age, 11.9 [IQR, 6.0-16.1] years). Among the 10 245 children (6.1%) who were hospitalized, 1423 (13.9%) met the criteria for severe disease: mechanical ventilation (796 [7.8%]), vasopressor-inotropic support (868 [8.5%]), extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (42 [0.4%]), or death (131 [1.3%]). Male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.37; 95% CI, 1.21-1.56), Black/African American race (OR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.47), obesity (OR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.41), and several pediatric complex chronic condition (PCCC) subcategories were associated with higher severity disease. Vital signs and many laboratory test values from the day of admission were predictive of peak disease severity. Variables associated with increased odds for MIS-C vs acute COVID-19 included male sex (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.33-1.90), Black/African American race (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.17-1.77), younger than 12 years (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.51-2.18), obesity (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.40-2.22), and not having a pediatric complex chronic condition (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.80). The children with MIS-C had a more inflammatory laboratory profile and severe clinical phenotype, with higher rates of invasive ventilation (117 of 707 [16.5%] vs 514 of 8241 [6.2%]; P < .001) and need for vasoactive-inotropic support (191 of 707 [27.0%] vs 426 of 8241 [5.2%]; P < .001) compared with those who had acute COVID-19. Comparing children during the Delta vs pre-Delta eras, there was no significant change in hospitalization rate (1738 [6.0%] vs 8507 [6.2%]; P = .18) and lower odds for severe disease (179 [10.3%] vs 1242 [14.6%]) (decreased by a factor of 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.79; P < .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of US children with SARS-CoV-2, there were observed differences in demographic characteristics, preexisting comorbidities, and initial vital sign and laboratory values between severity subgroups. Taken together, these results suggest that early identification of children likely to progress to severe disease could be achieved using readily available data elements from the day of admission. Further work is needed to translate this knowledge into improved outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Disease Progression , Early Diagnosis , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sociodemographic Factors , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/virology , United States/epidemiology , Vital Signs
4.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50:13-13, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1595766

ABSTRACT

B Introduction: b SARS-CoV-2 can cause severe pediatric disease via acute COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Outcomes included case incidence and severity over time, risk factors for higher severity disease, vital sign and lab trajectories, clinical outcomes, and acute COVID-19 vs. We sought to determine the characteristics, changes over time, outcomes, and severity risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 infected children within the National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C). [Extracted from the article] Copyright of Critical Care Medicine is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

5.
Case Rep Pediatr ; 2020: 8885022, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873624

ABSTRACT

The overwhelming majority of pediatric cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection are mild or asymptomatic with only a handful of pediatric deaths reported. We present a case of severe COVID-19 infection in a pediatric patient with signs of hyperinflammation and consumptive coagulopathy requiring intubation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and eventual death due to ECMO complications.

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