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1.
Gut ; 72(Suppl 1):A218-A219, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-20236992

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe COVID-19 pandemic has led to changes in dietary and lifestyle habits among children and adolescents. This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with unhealthy dietary habits among 1,475 primary and secondary school students from 2021 to 2022.MethodsA cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected primary and secondary schools participating in a project promoting online health education and promotion named GoSmart using self-administered questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate the demographic and lifestyle habits associated with various unhealthy dietary habits. This study was approved by Survey and Behavioural Research Ethics (SBRE) [Reference No.: SBRE-21-0052] and funded by Quality Education Fund (QEF#2019/0883).ResultsThe prevalence of inadequate consumption of vegetables and fruits was high among both primary (81.5%) and secondary school students (89.5%) and associated with physical inactivity in both primary (aOR=3.35, 95%CI: 1.41-7.97, p=0.006) and secondary students (aOR=4.30, 95%CI: 1.51-12.25, p=0.006). A substantial prevalence of breakfast skipping was observed among primary students (22.9%) who spent two or more hours on video games or social media (aORs=1.84-2.27);and among secondary students (23.7%) who consumed two or more hours on social media, alcohol consumption, and consumption of unhealthy food (aORs=1.42-2.79). Consumption of unhealthy food was reported by 43.9% and 48.2% for primary and secondary students respectively, with primary and secondary students who spent two or more hours on video games or social media (aORs=1.62-2.27) and secondary students who perceived themselves as underweight (aOR=1.79, 95%CI: 1.13-2.83, p=0.012) having a higher frequency of consumption.ConclusionsThere was a high prevalence of unhealthy dietary habits among schoolchildren in Hong Kong. Alarming results were observed with physical inactivity being associated with a higher risk of unhealthy dietary habits among primary and secondary students, which may increase the risk of obesity. Moreover, the apparent interrelationship between unhealthy habits highlights the need for a comprehensive approach to promoting healthy habits through education in this population.

2.
J Infect ; 87(2): 136-143, 2023 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Assess real-world effectiveness of vaccines against COVID-19. METHODS: A test-negative study was conducted in January-May 2022 during an Omicron BA.2 wave in Hong Kong. COVID-19 was identified by RT-PCR. 1-1 case-control matching was based on propensity score with vaccine effectiveness adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Altogether, 1781 cases and 1737 controls aged 3-105 years were analysed. The mean lag time from the last dose of vaccination to testing for SARS-CoV-2 was 133.9 (SD: 84.4) days. Two doses of either vaccine within 180 days offered a low effectiveness against COVID-19 of all severity combined (VEadj [95% CI] for BNT162b2: 27.0% [4.2-44.5], CoronaVac: 22.9% [1.3-39.7]), and further decreased after 180 days. Two doses of CoronaVac were poorly protective 39.5% [4.9-62.5] against severe diseases for age ≥ 60 years, but the effectiveness increased substantially after the third dose (79.1% [25.7-96.7]). Two doses of BNT162b2 protected age ≥ 60 years against severe diseases (79.3% [47.2, 93.9]); however, the uptake was not high enough to assess three doses. CONCLUSIONS: The current real-world analysis indicates a high vaccine effectiveness of three doses of inactivated virus (CoronaVac) vaccines against Omicron variant, whereas the effectiveness of two doses is suboptimal.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger , Hong Kong/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccines, Inactivated
3.
COVID-19 and a World of Ad Hoc Geographies: Volume 1 ; 1:2461-2489, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2322856

ABSTRACT

The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) has long been engaged in relief and development work. Internationally, the ELCA engages in this work through relationships with national churches and as a member of a global Lutheran communion. As COVID-19 emerged and then spread into a pandemic affecting people and communities around the world, this network positioned us to respond. As of January 2021, the ELCA supported responses of churches and local organizations, all embedded as integral parts of their communities, in more than 45 countries. We present narratives collected from COVID-19 response participants in Brazil, India, and Sierra Leone to demonstrate the unique contribution that local churches made in addressing the impacts of COVID-19 in their contexts and convey the collective impact of this work through participating in relationship and mission together. We aim to show that these responses are effective, relevant, build resilience, and address injustice, both by focusing immediate relief where, and with whom the greatest injustice of the pandemic is directly felt, and with an eye toward working for justice for the longer term. © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2022.

4.
Journal of Occupational Science ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2322676

ABSTRACT

Waiting is part of the collective experience as occupational beings. It has been studied in fields of psychology and patient experience, but not yet explored within occupational science. We consider the strengths and limitations of considering waiting as an occupation in itself or as a form of occupational disruption. While people wait in almost every aspect of their daily lives, this paper focuses predominantly on waiting in the context of healthcare services. While recognising the wider impact of waiting in other aspects of life, this focus was chosen in response to media coverage of waiting times following the COVID-19 pandemic. In light of this exploration, we call for more occupationally focused research into the phenomenon of waiting, which can lead to fuller assessments of the impact of waiting for patients and development of occupationally focussed interventions to support ‘waiting well'. © 2023 The Journal of Occupational Science Incorporated.

5.
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy Science and Practice ; 30(Suppl 1):A195, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2317919

ABSTRACT

Background and ImportanceIn the context of pre-exposure prophylaxis of COVID-19 in adults and adolescents aged 12 years and older (> 40 kg), tixagevimab-cilgavimab is currently included in clinical guidelines. The recommended dose is administered as two separate sequential intramuscular injections (150 mg of tixagevimab and 150 mg of cilgavimab), preferably in the gluteal muscles. Due to their recent authorisation, effectiveness and security of this treatment is not well known.Aim and ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to analyse the effectiveness and security of tixagevimab-cilgavimab in patients with COVID-19 risk after a complete vaccination regimen, collated with the data from PROVENT clinical trial.Material and MethodsRetrospective observational study in a cohort of COVID-19 risk patients. Electronic medical record and prescription application were used to collect the following data: sex, age, comorbidities, anticoagulation, and titles of anti-Spike antibodies, and COVID-19 infections after administration.ResultsThe study includes 41 patients (52.5% women, median age 64.5 years (SD 13.5)), who were candidates to prophylaxis because of their comorbidities: anti-CD20 active treatment (21), solid organ transplantation (renal (10) and pulmonary (14)), chronic kidney disease (2), immunosuppression (1), cytotoxic chemotherapy (1) or haematopoietic Stem Cell transplant (1). After the last vaccination, 97.5% of the patients had low antibodies (< 260 BAU/mL), which demonstrates an inadequate response to active immunisation. These comorbidities and clinical conditions were similar in PROVENT.In PROVENT, the duration of protection is estimated to be at least 6 months (0.2% COVID-19 positive cases after administration prior to day 183). In our study population, 3 patients were COVID-19 positive (7.5%) prior to day 90 after administration without severe or critical symptomatic illness.As with any other intramuscular injections, should be given with caution to patients with thrombocytopenia or coagulation disorders;5 patients were on anticoagulation therapy and no bleeding events were recorded. Therefore, non-hypersensitivity reactions have been observed.Conclusion and RelevanceEffectiveness and security of the pre-exposure prophylaxis with tixagevimab-cilgavimab was adequate in most of the patients treated, and similar to the data of the clinical trials. Even so, pre-exposure prophylaxis is not a substitute for vaccination. Nevertheless, further studies were necessary to establish the effective and security profile.References and/or AcknowledgementsConflict of InterestNo conflict of interest

7.
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 78(Supplement 111):283, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2296003

ABSTRACT

Case report Purpose: To report two cases of reactivation of BCG vaccination scars, the first after mRNA -SARS- CoV2 -vaccine and the second after SARS-CoV2 infection. Case 1: A 33 year-old woman, a nursing assistant, was referred with erythema and swelling of her BCG vaccination scar 24 hours after receiving her second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech) and, 10 months later, after receiving her third dose with the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine. Case 2: A 60 year-old woman, a medical doctor, was referred with erythema and swelling of her two BCG vaccination scars (one administered at birth and the second one at the age of 10), 12 days after testing positive for SARS-CoV2 associated with homolateral supraclavicular and axillary adenopathy's . In both cases, total IgE values and D-dimer were normal and symptoms resolved spontaneously within 7 days, without further treatment. Discussion(s): Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) local scar inflammatory reactions have been described with Kawasaki disease in children, with other viral infections such as measles and human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6) infection and following influenza vaccination. The relationship between the BCG vaccine and SARS-CoV2 remains unclear. Even in mid-2020 and during the first years of the pandemic, it was proposed that the BCG vaccine could be protective against SARS-CoV2 infection. Several studies were launched to evaluate this hypothesis, with no conclusive results in this regard. Along the last two years, some cases of reactivation of BCG vaccination scars have been reported after vaccination with mRNA -SARS- CoV2 -vaccines. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of reactivation of BCG vaccination scars after SARS-CoV2 infection. Conclusion(s): We report the first case of BCG vaccine scar inflammation as a local reaction following SARS-CoV2 infection. The reactivation of BCG vaccine scar after receiving mRNA vaccines and after SARS-CoV2 infection might have been caused by an immunological reaction due to a cross reactivity phenomenon between BCG and SARS-CoV2. The immunological and clinical implication of this reaction needs to be further studied. Clinicians need to be aware of this local reaction to SARS-CoV2 vaccines and infection. (Figure Presented).

8.
Pedagogia Social ; 42:75-92, 2023.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2295553

ABSTRACT

Labour insertion is an area of socio-educational intervention that can contribute to the social inclusion of different individuals and groups. Based on a literature review on protective elements in socio-occupational integration processes, and taking into account especially the situation experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic in the years 2020-2022, in this study we have identified, through 109 questionnaires and 21 group interviews with socio-educational agents, which of these elements are present in integration projects currently being developed in 4 Latin American countries, and we have explored how they define 'good practices' in this area and what effective actions exist. The results, explained by country (Brazil, Spain, Colombia and Mexico), indicate that three types of protection elements are considered in the different socio-educational projects: development of personal and professional competences;support from the family and social context;and institutional elements related to socio-occupational intermediation and social support interventions. In relation to good practices, the technical agents working in insertion projects associate this term with methodological characteristics of their intervention (accompaniment, empathy, personalisation) and/or with the achievement of results (quality of life, empowerment, employability). They identify new challenges that have arisen during the pandemic, such as digital literacy or mental health, and illustrate with some examples of successful practices they are developing. The article ends with a mention of the socio-educational approach in socio-labour insertion programmes and the presentation of two proposals for further study. © 2023 Sociedad Iberoamericana de Pedagogía Social. All rights reserved.

9.
Nutrients ; 15(8)2023 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305790

ABSTRACT

Gut microbiota is believed to be a major determinant of health outcomes. We hypothesised that a novel oral microbiome formula (SIM01) can reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes in at-risk subjects during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In this single-centre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited subjects aged ≥65 years or with type two diabetes mellitus. Eligible subjects were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive three months of SIM01 or placebo (vitamin C) within one week of the first COVID-19 vaccine dose. Both the researchers and participants were blinded to the groups allocated. The rate of adverse health outcomes was significantly lower in the SIM01 group than the placebo at one month (6 [2.9%] vs. 25 [12.6], p < 0.001) and three months (0 vs. 5 [3.1%], p = 0.025). At three months, more subjects who received SIM01 than the placebo reported better sleep quality (53 [41.4%] vs. 22 [19.3%], p < 0.001), improved skin condition (18 [14.1%] vs. 8 [7.0%], p = 0.043), and better mood (27 [21.2%] vs. 13 [11.4%], p = 0.043). Subjects who received SIM01 showed a significant increase in beneficial Bifidobacteria and butyrate-producing bacteria in faecal samples and strengthened the microbial ecology network. SIM01 reduced adverse health outcomes and restored gut dysbiosis in elderly and diabetes patients during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Aged , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Double-Blind Method
10.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(3)2023 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296684

ABSTRACT

Childhood vaccination is crucial to protect young children from harmful infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the recent childhood immunization rate of recommended and additional vaccinations and identify the factors affecting the vaccination uptake of young children in Hong Kong. The self-administrated questionnaires were distributed to parents of toddlers aged 2 to 5. They were asked to provide information on (1) socioeconomic demographic factors; (2) experiences during pregnancy; and (3) the medical history of the toddler. A total of 1799 responses were collected. Children were more likely to be fully vaccinated when they were at a younger age (aOR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.48-0.78, p < 0.001), the first child in the family (aOR second-born = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.48-0.81, p < 0.001; aOR third-born = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.19-0.55, p < 0.001), had a higher household income (aOR HKD 15,000-HKD 29,999 = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.27-2.55, p = 0.001; aOR ≥ HKD 30,000 = 3.42, 95% CI: 2.39-4.90, p < 0.001; compared with

11.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0284283, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296683

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has resulted in changes in lifestyle habits and experiences of mental health outcomes, some of which were possibly related to weight gain, leading to an increase in the prevalence of obesity, which is associated with the development of several severe diseases. Concerns regarding weight gain and its impact on health outcomes are prevalent worldwide, with obesity being one of the highest causes of mortality in current society. METHODS: A self-reported questionnaire collected data from participants aged 18 years of age and above from 26 countries and regions worldwide. Post-hoc multiple logistic regression analyses have been done to evaluate the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors, and the perspectives that were identified to be associated with weight gain. RESULTS: Participants belonging to a younger age group; with a higher level of education; living in an urban area; living with family members; employed full-time; and had obesity were found to be more vulnerable to weight gain. After adjusting for socio-demographic factors, participants who were quarantined; exercised less prior to the pandemic; consumed unhealthy foods; and reported negative thoughts such as helplessness and the perceived risk of COVID-19, were more likely to experience weight gain; while negative thoughts such as having no means of control over the COVID-19 pandemic and the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic will have great personal effect were associated with females, students, and people living in the rural area. CONCLUSIONS: Weight gain risk during the pandemic was significantly associated with certain socio-demographic and COVID-19 related factors. To improve public health outcomes, future research should conduct a longitudinal evaluation on the effects of COVID-19 experiences upon health choices. Streamlined mental support should also be provided to the vulnerable groups which were prone to negative thoughts that were associated with weight gain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Female , Humans , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Weight Gain , Obesity/epidemiology
12.
50th Annual Conference of the European Society for Engineering Education, SEFI 2022 ; : 1644-1653, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2281910

ABSTRACT

Greater collaboration is required between universities, industry and society to provide the engineering education that will tackle society's challenges. Work-based learning (WBL) programmes offer an industry-aligned, academically-informed education to support such socio-economic development. Co-design of such programmes is vital with responses to the COVID-19 pandemic innovating alternative ways to design programmes. Knowles et al (2021) [1] outlined an approach to online programme co-design in the UK university context, framed using Signature Pedagogy and through online conferencing and Miro (online whiteboard). Subsequently, the approach has been utilised to co-design a WBL degree programme in Electrical Engineering in Eswatini, supported by Knowles and other UK and Eswatini colleagues. This paper compares and contrasts cases from UK and Eswatini, and from this address the research question, "What considerations are required to support an effective online process to co-design a work-based learning programme in Engineering?” A collaborative autoethnographic methodology based around field notes, observations and reflections is used to allow exploration across pedagogy, technology, work practices, expectations and challenges. Many aspects of the approach worked well in both cases (for example, effectiveness of Signature Pedagogy, Miro as shared space), whereas differences arose related to limitations in the synchronous use of technologies, and readiness to adopt an outcome-focused approach. Addressing these differences, along with balancing progress against full participation and having clear expectations of participants, are key considerations in online co-design of WBL programmes. Moreover, the approach of Knowles (ibid) has shown to be adaptable with potential for broader adoption. © 2022 SEFI 2022 - 50th Annual Conference of the European Society for Engineering Education, Proceedings. All rights reserved.

13.
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy Science and Practice ; 30(Suppl 1):A127, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2260245

ABSTRACT

Background and ImportanceThe high healthcare burden in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) due to the SARS-CoV2 Coronavirus pandemic has created a work environment that increased medication errors. It is known that pharmaceutical interventions reduced medicantion errors.Aim and ObjectivesThe objective of this study is to know the impact of pharmaceutical intervention in critically ill patients.Material and MethodsRetrospective observational study carried out in a general hospital. All the pharmaceutical interventions performed in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) between the months of October 2020 and April 2021 were analysed. It was registered in a database: Positive diagnosis of COVID-19 (SARS-CoV2 coronavirus disease), number of interventions, type of intervention and acceptance of the intervention.ResultsA total of 51 interventions were obtained in 169 patients admitted during the 7 months of the study (0.3 interventions / patient). 42.6% of the patients had a diagnosis of COVID-19. 17% of the patients admitted to the ICU had at least one intervention, of which 38% had more than 1 (mean 1.76 interventions per intervened patient). The most frequent reasons for intervention were dose modification due to inappropriate dose (35.3%) and inappropriate choice of presentation due to the route of administration (21.5%). 84% of the interventions were carried out in COVID-19 patients, with the mean number of interventions performed in these patients higher than in non-COVID-19 patients (1.87 vs 1.33). 92% of the interventions conducted by the pharmacist were accepted.Conclusion and RelevancePharmaceutical validation in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is essential to optimise the treatment of critical patients, increasing safety and efficacy of medications they receive and reducing medication errors. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 are especially likely to benefit from pharmaceutical interventions, which are highly accepted by physicians.References and/or AcknowledgementsConflict of InterestNo conflict of interest

14.
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy Science and Practice ; 30(Suppl 1):A57, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2260244

ABSTRACT

Background and ImportanceImmunosuppression due to SARS-CoV2 infection (COVID19) has caused an increase in identification of multi-resistant organisms in Intensive Care Units (ICU), among which multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa rise about others. Cefiderocol is a costly new cephalosporin against extensively resistant Gram-negative bacteria.Aim and ObjectivesThe objective of this study is to describe the characteristics and clinical results of patients treated with cefiderocol, as well as the dosage of this treatment, in ICU inpatients with COVID19 pneumonia and co-infected with pan-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Material and MethodsRetrospective observational study carried out in a general hospital from September 2020 to December 2021. Inpatients at ICU diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia that were treated with cefiderocol due to P. aeruginosa infection were included. Collected data were: days admitted in ICU, days of treatment with cefiderocol, concomitant treatment, cefiderocol dosage and results of the treatment.ResultsThree patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria among 70 patients admitted to ICU with COVID-19 in the study period (4.3%). All patients included were men and the median age was 66.6 ± 6.5 years old. They presented as comorbidities obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus. They were admitted during 87 ± 28.6 days, with detection of pan-resistant P. aeruginosa in the range of 32.5 ± 2.1 days after admission at ICU. All of these cultures were only sensitive to cefiderocol, being resistant to all other tested antibiotics. Due to that, all patients received cefiderocol during their stay and dose adjustment to their renal function or renal replacement therapy were applied. Every patient received a bolus of 2 grams in 30 minutes and the maintenance dose in at least 3 hours. The average of treatment days was 20.5 ± 4.5 days. In all cases, the isolated strains were sensitive to colistin, so cefiderocol was used in combination with it. The results of the treatment were disparate: one cure, one death, and one development of resistance to cefiderocol.Conclusion and RelevanceCefiderocol use for multi-resistant bacteria treatment requires prior knowledge of its pharmacokinetics, taking into account the physiological factors of patients in its dosage. New treatments are not exempt from the development of resistance.References and/or AcknowledgementsConflict of InterestNo conflict of interest

15.
Simulation ; 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2256381

ABSTRACT

The study of infectious disease models has become increasingly important during the COVID-19 pandemic. The forecasting of disease spread using mathematical models has become a common practice by public health authorities, assisting in creating policies to combat the spread of the virus. Common approaches to the modeling of infectious diseases include compartmental differential equations and cellular automata, both of which do not describe the spatial dynamics of disease spread over unique geographical regions. We introduce a new methodology for modeling disease spread within a pandemic using geographical models. We demonstrate how geography-based Cell-Discrete-Event Systems Specification (DEVS) and the Cadmium JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) library can be used to develop geographical cellular models. We exemplify the use of these methodologies by developing different versions of a compartmental model that considers geographical-level transmission dynamics (e.g. movement restriction or population disobedience to public health guidelines), the effect of asymptomatic population, and vaccination stages with a varying immunity rate. Our approach provides an easily adaptable framework that allows rapid prototyping and modifications. In addition, it offers deterministic predictions for any number of regions simulated simultaneously and can be easily adapted to unique geographical areas. While the baseline model has been calibrated using real data from Ontario, we can update and/or add different infection profiles as soon as new information about the spread of the disease become available. © The Author(s) 2023.

16.
Int J Health Policy Manag ; 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2288074

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination is very critical in controlling COVID-19. This study mainly aimed to (1) investigate behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccination under various specific scenarios, and (2) associated factors of the afore-mentioned vaccination intentions. METHODS: A random anonymous telephone survey interviewed 450 Chinese adults from September 16-30, 2020 in Hong Kong, China. Nine scenarios of behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccinations were measured combining effectiveness (80% versus 50%), safety (rare versus common mild side effect), and cost (free versus HK$ 500). RESULTS: The prevalence of behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccination under the 9 specific scenarios was very low and varied greatly (4.2% to 38.0%). The prospective countries of manufacture also influenced vaccination intention (eg, Japan: 55.8% vs China: 31.1%). Only 13.1% intended to take up COVID-19 vaccination at the soonest upon its availability. The attributes of effectiveness and side effect influenced vaccination intention most. Positively associated factors of behavioral intentions of COVID-19 vaccination included trust/satisfaction toward the government, exposure to positive social media information about COVID-19 vaccines, descriptive norms, perceived impact on the pandemic, perceived duration of protectiveness, and life satisfaction. CONCLUSION: Intention of COVID-19 vaccination was low in the Hong Kong general population, especially among younger people, females, and single people. Health promotion is warranted to enhance the intention. The significant factors identified in this study may be considered when designing such health promotion. Future research is required to confirm the findings in other countries. Such studies should pay attention to the specific context of cost, safety, and effectiveness, which would lead to different responses in the level of behavioral intention of COVID-19 vaccination (BICV).

17.
Int J Obstet Anesth ; 53: 103613, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2271653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous research has shown that, in comparison with non-pregnant women of reproductive age, pregnant women with COVID-19 are more likely to be admitted to critical care, receive invasive ventilation, and die. At present there are limited data in relation to outcomes and healthcare utilisation following hospital discharge of pregnant and recently pregnant women admitted to critical care. METHODS: A national cohort study of pregnant and recently pregnant women who were admitted to critical care in Scotland with confirmed or suspected COVID-19. We examined hospital outcomes as well as hospital re-admission rates. RESULTS: Between March 2020 and March 2022, 75 pregnant or recently pregnant women with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were admitted to 24 Intensive Care Units across Scotland. Almost two thirds (n=49, 65%) were from the most deprived socio-economic areas. Complete 90-day acute hospital re-admission data were available for 74 (99%) patients. Nine (12%) women required an emergency non-obstetric hospital re-admission within 90 days. Less than 5% of the cohort had received any form of vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: This national cohort study has demonstrated that pregnant or recently pregnant women admitted to critical care with COVID-19 were more likely to reside in areas of socio-economic deprivation, and fewer than 5% of the cohort had received any form of vaccination. More targeted public health campaigning across the socio-economic gradient is urgently required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Female , Humans , Male , Cohort Studies , Intensive Care Units , Critical Care , Scotland/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy
18.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 396(8): 1619-1632, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265850

ABSTRACT

While new drug approvals by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) had remained stable or even increased in the first 2 years of the COVID-19 pandemic, the 37 newly approved drugs in 2022 are considerably less than the 53 and 50 new drugs approved in 2020 and 2021, respectively, and less than the rolling 10-year average of 43. As in previous years of this annual review, we assign these new drugs to one of three levels of innovation: first drug against a condition ("first-in-indication"), first drug using a novel molecular mechanism ("first-in-class"), and "next-in-class," i.e., a drug using an already exploited molecular mechanism. We identify two "first-in-indication" (ganaxolon and teplizumab), 20 (54%) "first-in-class," and 17 (46%) "next-in-class" drugs. By treatment area, rare diseases and cancer drugs were once again the most prevalent (partly overlapping) therapeutic areas. Other continuing trends were the use of accelerated regulatory approval pathways and the reliance on biopharmaceuticals (biologics).


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , United States , Humans , United States Food and Drug Administration , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Drug Approval
19.
Empirical Studies of the Arts ; 41(1):31-51, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2239503

ABSTRACT

Visual representation as a means of communication uses elements to build a narrative. We propose using computer analysis to perform a quantitative analysis of the elements used in the visual creations that have been produced in reference to the epidemic, using 927 images compiled from The Covid Art Museum's Instagram account. This process has been carried out with techniques based on deep learning to detect objects contained in each study image. The research reveals the elements that are repeated in images to create narratives and the relations of association that are established in the sample. The predominant discourses in the sample do not show concern for the effects of illness. On the contrary, the impact and effects of confinement, through the prominent presence of elements such as human figures, windows, and buildings, are the most expressed experiences in the creations analyzed. © The Author(s) 2022.

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