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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1512330

ABSTRACT

Teaching in higher education in the 21st century is moving towards e-Learning or b-Learning teaching models. This situation has increased due to the SARS CoV-2 health crisis. Therefore, teaching-learning models must be based on the use of active methodologies that facilitate students' motivation to work in learning management systems (LMS). One of the most current resources is the digital game-based learning (DGBL) use, specifically in health sciences degrees (e.g., nursing). In this study, we worked with 225 third-year students of degrees in nursing (ND) and occupational therapy (OTD). The objectives were (1) to find out if there were significant differences between students who had worked with DGBL techniques vs. those who had not, and (2) to find out if there were significant differences depending on the type of degree (ND vs. OTD) regarding access to the LMS, learning outcomes and students' satisfaction with teachers' performance. A mixed-method research approach was applied. In the quantitative study, significant differences were found in the accesses to the LMS in favor of the groups that had worked with DGBL techniques. Significant differences were also found in ND students with respect to learning outcomes in the group that worked with DGBL. Regarding the results of the qualitative study, differences were found in the frequency of interaction and in the preference of DGBL activities depending on the type of degree. Further studies will investigate the possible causes of these differences.

2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 108: 45-52, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1409643

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The overall death toll from COVID-19 in Africa is reported to be low but there is little individual-level evidence on the severity of the disease. This study examined the clinical spectrum and outcome of patients monitored in COVID-19 care centres (CCCs) in two West-African countries. METHODS: Burkina Faso and Guinea set up referral CCCs to hospitalise all symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 carriers, regardless of the severity of their symptoms. Data collected from hospitalised patients by November 2020 are presented. RESULT: A total of 1,805 patients (64% men, median age 41 years) were admitted with COVID-19. Symptoms lasted for a median of 7 days (IQR 4-11). During hospitalisation, 443 (25%) had a SpO2 < 94% at least once, 237 (13%) received oxygen and 266 (15%) took corticosteroids. Mortality was 5% overall, and 1%, 5% and 14% in patients aged <40, 40-59 and ≥60 years, respectively. In multivariable analysis, the risk of death was higher in men (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1; 3.6), people aged ≥60 years (aOR 2.9, 95% CI 1.7; 4.8) and those with chronic hypertension (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2; 3.4). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is as severe in Africa as elsewhere, and there must be more vigilance for common risk factors such as older age and hypertension.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Burkina Faso/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Referral and Consultation , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e27301, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328047

ABSTRACT

To combat the COVID-19 pandemic, many European countries have developed a public health strategy involving the use of digital contact tracing (DCT) applications to improve timely tracking and contact tracing of COVID-19 cases. France's independent COVID-19 Control and Society Connection Council (CCL) was established by law in May 2020 to issue advice and recommendations on the national epidemic digital systems. In this paper, we present the recommendations by the CCL, with the objective to increase the uptake and utility of French DCT applications. As the country's most vulnerable population has been subjected to greater virus exposure, a stronger impact of the lockdown, and less access to preventive and health care services, the CCL is particularly aware of health inequalities. The French DCT app TousAntiCovid had been downloaded by 13.6 million users (ie, 20% of the French population) in March 2021. To promote the use of DCT apps, the CCL has recommended that communication about the app's individual and collective objectives be increased. The CCL has also recommended the introduction of clear, simple, accessible, incentivizing, noncoercive information within the digital tools. In addition, the CCL has recommended improving public health policies to address the needs of the underprivileged. The CCL calls for promoting population empowerment with the use of digital tools, improving public health culture for decision-makers dealing with health determinants, taking social considerations into account, and incorporating community participation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Communicable Disease Control , Contact Tracing , France/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 1: 100005, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1265776

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to significant respiratory failure with between 14% and 18% of hospitalised patients requiring critical care admission. This study describes the impact of socioeconomic deprivation on 30-day survival following critical care admission for COVID-19, and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on critical care capacity in Scotland. Methods: This cohort study used linked national hospital records including ICU, virology testing and national death records to identify and describe patients with COVID-19 admitted to critical care units in Scotland. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the impact of deprivation on 30-day mortality. Critical care capacity was described by reporting the percentage of baseline ICU bed utilisation required. Findings: There were 735 patients with COVID-19 admitted to critical care units across Scotland from 1/3/2020 to 20/6/2020. There was a higher proportion of patients from more deprived areas, with 183 admissions (24.9%) from the most deprived quintile and 100 (13.6%) from the least deprived quintile. Overall, 30-day mortality was 34.8%. After adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity, mortality was significantly higher in patients from the most deprived quintile (OR 1.97, 95%CI 1.13, 3.41, p=0.016). ICUs serving populations with higher levels of deprivation spent a greater amount of time over their baseline ICU bed capacity. Interpretation: Patients with COVID-19 living in areas with greatest socioeconomic deprivation had a higher frequency of critical care admission and a higher adjusted 30-day mortality. ICUs in health boards with higher levels of socioeconomic deprivation had both higher peak occupancy and longer duration of occupancy over normal maximum capacity. Funding: None.

5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e2111103, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206732

ABSTRACT

Importance: Understanding youth well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic can help appropriately allocate resources and inform policies to support youth. Objective: To examine caregiver-reported changes in the psychological well-being of their children 3 to 4 months after the start of COVID-19 stay-at-home orders, and to examine the association of caregiver-reported COVID-19 exposure and family stressors with caregiver perceptions of child psychological well-being. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study used an anonymous survey distributed via email from June 24 to July 15, 2020, to 350 000 families of students attending public schools in Chicago, Illinois. The a priori hypotheses were that caregivers would report worsening in child psychological well-being during the closure period compared with preclosure and that exposure to COVID-19-related stressors would be associated with a higher probability of worsening child psychological well-being. Data were analyzed from September 10, 2020, to March 15, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: Outcomes were 7 mental health concerns and 5 positive adjustment characteristics reported by caregivers using a retrospective pre-post design. COVID-19 exposure and family stressors were also reported by caregivers. Results: Among 350 000 families invited to participate, 32 217 caregivers (10 827 [39.3%] White, 8320 [30.2%] Latinx, 6168 [22.4%] Black; 2223 [8.1%] with multiple or other races/ethnicities) completed the survey on behalf of 49 397 children in prekindergarten through 12th grade. Child-specific outcomes were reported for 40 723 to 40 852 children depending on the specific question. The frequency of caregiver endorsement of youth mental health concerns ranged from 0.1 percentage point (suicidal ideation or self-harm, reported by 191 caregivers [0.5%] preclosure vs 246 caregivers [0.6%] during closure; P < .001) to 28.3 percentage points (loneliness, reported by 1452 caregivers [3.6%] preclosure vs 13 019 caregivers [31.9%] during closure; P < .001) higher after the end of in-person instruction compared with preclosure. Frequency of caregiver endorsement of youth positive adjustment characteristics ranged from -13.4 percentage points (plans for the future, reported by 18 114 caregivers [44.3%] preclosure vs 12 601 caregivers [30.9%] during closure; P < .001) to -30.9 percentage points (positive peer relationships, reported by 24 666 caregivers [60.4%] preclosure vs 19 130 caregivers [46.8%] during closure; P < .001) lower after the end of in-person instruction. Significant differences in COVID-19 exposure were observed across racial/ethnic (F3,27 534 = 614.8; P < .001) and household income strata (F5,27 506 = 842.0; P < .001). After accounting for covariates, all mental health concerns increased in probability (eg, angry: odds ratio, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.48-1.62]; P < .001) and all the positive adjustment characteristics decreased in probability (eg, hopeful or positive: odds ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.84-0.92]; P < .001) as COVID-19 exposure and family stressors increased. Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of caregivers during the COVID-19 pandemic, COVID-19 and resulting exposure to stress were associated with worse youth psychological well-being, demonstrating the need for a comprehensive public health approach that prioritizes children's well-being and draws broad public attention to the mental health needs of youth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Caregivers/psychology , Child Health , Child Welfare , Parents/psychology , Stress, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Education, Distance , Family Health , Female , Humans , Illinois/epidemiology , Male , Mental Health/standards , Parent-Child Relations , Physical Distancing , Qualitative Research , Quality Improvement , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/etiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
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