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1.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 9(Supplement 2):S861-S862, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2190010

ABSTRACT

Background. Transplacental and milk antibodies following maternal SARS-CoV-2 vaccination could offer infants protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection as there are no approved vaccines for this age-group. Our objective was to assess maternal and infant factors to determine if they are protective against infant SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods. Prospective cohort starting April 2021 of lactating women immunized with first SARS-CoV-2 vaccine during pregnancy or lactation and their infants. Participants have longitudinal milk and optional blood samples collected. The primary outcome was parent-reported infant SARS-CoV-2 infection between December 1, 2021 and February 20, 2022 during the local Omicron variant wave. Infants with infection before this window were excluded. We measured anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG in milk and maternal and infant blood collected from October to December 2021. For women who received SARS-CoV-2 booster vaccine, the mother and infant samples that were collected 2-4 weeks after vaccine were used in this analysis. Geometric mean titers (GMTs) were log-transformed for analysis. Factors were evaluated with univariate and multivariable logistic regression. Results. Of the 101 mother-infant pairs enrolled, 89 had clinical data during this time period;73 women had milk titers;58 mother-infant pairs had blood titers. All women received SARS-CoV-2 vaccine while pregnant (44%) or lactating (56%). 83% received a SARS-CoV-2 booster vaccine. 81% were still lactating at time of analysis. 23% (N=21) of infants had infection. On univariate analysis, no daycare (Odds ratio (OR: 0.2;95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.6), maternal IgG in blood >= 900 (OR:0.1;95%CI:0.02-0.5);and IgG in milk >= 8 (OR:0.3;95%CI: 0.1-0.9) were significantly protective against infant infection (Figure 1). On multivariable analysis, point estimates for milk IgG, infant blood IgG, maternal receipt of booster vaccine and no daycare were highly protective against infant infection, although only milk IgG and no daycare reached level of significance (Figure 2). Estimates are likely limited by small sample size. No daycare attendance (Odds ratio (OR:0.2;95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.6), maternal IgG in blood >/=900 (OR:0.1;95%CI:0.02-0.5);and IgG in milk >/=8 (OR:0.3;95%CI: 0.1-0.9) were significantly protective against infant infection. Data analyzed with univariate logistic regression with infant SARS-CoV-2 infection as the dependent variable. Milk IgG >/=8, infant blood IgG >/=900, maternal receipt of booster vaccine, and no daycare were highly protective against infant infection, although only milk IgG >/=8 (OR: 0.2;95%CI:0.05-1.0) and no daycare (OR: 0.2;95%CI: 0.1-1.0) reached the level of significance. Data analyzed with multivariable logistic regression with infant SARS-CoV-2 infection as the dependent variable. Conclusion. These data identify factors significantly associated with protection against infant SARS-CoV-2 infection, which could influence parent vaccine decision-making. (Figure Presented).

3.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009663

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by betacoronavirus SARS-CoV-2, is associated with an increased risk of severe infection or death in cancer patients compared to the general population. The CANVAX trial recently demonstrated that short term immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are modestly impaired in patients with cancer- particularly those who receive myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Because little is known regarding longitudinal antibody or T-cell responses in cancer patients who receive cytotoxic chemotherapy or non-myelosuppressive targeted systemic therapy, the aim of this longitudinal study is to assess immune B and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 over a 12-month period in solid tumor patients who receive chemotherapy or non-immunosuppressive therapy compared to healthy individuals without cancer. Methods: This is an ongoing prospective non-interventional clinical trial (NCT05238467). Approximately 100 patients will be enrolled into three different arms. Accrual began in May 2021 and 37 patients have been enrolled. Eligible patients must not have prior COVID-19 infection < 6 months from study enrollment and have a diagnosis of a solid tumor (breast, genitourinary, or gastrointestinal cancers), who either: received myelosuppressive chemotherapy within 60 days prior to initial or booster COVID vaccination, or who started on chemotherapy within 30 to 60 days after the initial or booster COVID vaccination (Arm A);or received non-immunosuppressive treatments (Arm B);or have no history of cancer or prior history of cancer but beyond 12 months from completion of curative cancer treatment (Arm C, control cohort). Whole blood will be collected in accordance with standard operating procedures. Blood samples analyzed for the presence of antibodies against the major antigenic components of SARS-CoV-2 including the spike glycoprotein (S), receptor binding domain (R) and nucleocapsid phosphoprotein (N). Antibody levels will be quantified utilizing quantitative ELISA. T-cell responses will also be quantified. The primary endpoint is seroprotection rate with an antibody titer protective (1:40) at any point: baseline, 2, 6, and 12 months. The secondary endpoint is to evaluate differences in longitudinal immunological responses to SARSCoV- 2 over a 12-month period. The difference of the seroprotection rate among 3 cohorts of participants will be examined using chi-square test. Moreover, the effect of treatment (chemotherapy, endocrine, TKIs) on seroprotection will be estimated using multivariable logistic regression controlling the effects of confounders, such as age, gender and cancer type. COVID antibody titers measured over time (baseline, 8 weeks, 6, 9, 12 months after the second vaccination) will be analyzed using mixedeffect models. .

4.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 35(4): 401-405, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904218

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 appeared, there have been numerous techniques that have been developed for the diagnosis or monitoring of infection, both direct and serological techniques. Choosing a good diagnostic tool is essential for epidemiological control. The objective was to compare five commercialized RT-PCR techniques in real time, in sensitivity, specificity and agreement for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: Five commercial RT-PCR kits for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 were compared. Eight known positive samples were taken and subjected to seven different dilutions or concentrations, and another 135 negative samples were used to determine sensitivity, specificity, and agreement values. RESULTS: The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for the Palex, Roche and GeneXpert techniques with respect to Seegene were identical, corresponding to 98.21%, 100%, 100% and 99.26% respectively. For Becton Dickinson the sensitivity was 89.28%, the specificity of 100%, the PPV of 100% and the NPV of 95.74%. The agreement using the Kappa index for Palex, Roche and GeneXpert was 0.9892, while the agreement for Becton Dickinson was with a Kappa index of 0.9215. CONCLUSIONS: All commercial RT-PCR kits had high sensitivities and specificities, as well as PPV, NPV, and concordance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
5.
Teoria y Realidad Constitucional ; - (48):543-557, 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1626636

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic has tested not only the legal foundations of fundamental rights in Austria, but also the awareness of them. A study by the Sigmund Freud University 2020 states that Austrians’ unfamiliarity with their rights is due to their fragmented and stratified constitution and the lack of a catalog of fundamental rights. The dynamic and early work of the Constitutional Court during the Covid-19 crisis has helped to promote the interest of the citizenry, which has been affected in a whole range of freedoms, such as movement and residence, exercising a profession, assembly, the right to private and family life, property, data protection, education and equality. Although for reasons of space it is not appropriate in this paper to address the defense of each right, the reader will get an impression of the challenges, legal and procedural shortcomings of the Austrian legal framework in the face of interim measures to prevent the spread of the Covid-19 disease. In this context, the versatility and agility with which the centuries-old Constitution and its Constitutional Court have responded in defense of fundamental rights is positively surprising. © 2021. All Rights Reserved.

6.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 226(1):S678-S678, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1624381
7.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology ; 226(1):S428-S429, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1624379
8.
Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases ; 80(SUPPL 1):1474-1475, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1358747

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To know the impact of the first wave of COVID19 (March to June 2020) in the nursing activity in rheumatology and explore improvements in patient care during the pandemic situation. Methods: 2 surveys were sent to nurses working in the rheumatology area (Both in the Outpatient department and day care unit) during October 2020 in Spain. The first survey had 10 questions about what happened in the rheumatology units in the first wave of the COVID19 pandemic (March to June of 2020) and the second survey had 10 questions about the standards of quality of nursing care in times of pandemic. Google forms were used to collect and analyze data. Results: 32 nurses completed the survey (30 women (93.8%)) with an average age of 49.6 ± 10.2 years. 93.8% work in the outpatient clinics and 2(6.2%) in day care units. The main results of the effects of the first wave of the pandemic are as follow: 4(12.5%) nurses were transferred to other areas of the hospital, 27(84.4%) showed changes in their care activity;and in 12(37,5%) of the surveyed centers, (slightly less than half of the medical staff) left their usual activity to care for COVID-19 patients. In June 2020, at the end of the first wave, 17(53.1%) reported more decompensated patients and 22(68.8%) reported that they had both telephone and face-to-face consultations;15(46.9%) reported that their clinical activity had increased. Regarding the standards of quality during the pandemia: 27(84.4%) believed that rheumatology units should be strengthened,31(96.9%) reported the need to carry out COVID educational campaigns in rheumatic patients and 30(100%) stated that nursing education should lead that education;31(96.7%) believed that telephone consultation should be on demand and by telephone, 25 (78.1%) considered it necessary to include video calls and the possibility of receiving reports in non-face to face care and photos. Finally, 23(71.9%) centers recorded nursing and medical telephone consultations in their medical records. Conclusion: The pandemic had a huge impact on nursing care for rheumatic patients, with difficulties associated with extra work load and changes in the dynamics of care. A readjustment of assistance has been necessary and audiovisual aids were necessary to improve telephone (non face to face) service.

9.
International Journal of Conflict Management ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1310980

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The expansion of online platforms for renting tourist accommodations has given rise to a great deal of controversy in society. Likewise, the arrival of tourists in residential settings has led to a wide range of positive and negative impacts, resulting in conflicts between different stakeholders. The purpose of this paper is to analyze whether there is variation in the perception of the impacts associated with peer-to-peer accommodation platforms among different stakeholders? Additionally, it also seeks to investigate what kind of impacts generate the highest level of conflict among stakeholders? Design/methodology/approach: Given the relative novelty of the problem, this paper proposes an exploratory study that sheds light on some of the main issues with the purpose of supporting further research in the future. The aim is to analyze which impacts are perceived as more positive or negative by each group and to create indexes of conflict for these groups regarding their perception of the impacts. This study is based on fieldwork carried out in April 2020, which consists of 600 online surveys of local residents in the city of Granada. This city, one of Spain’s main tourist spots, suffers the highest tourist pressure in the country. Findings: The exploratory study suggests that the greatest consensus is generated in the assessment of economic impacts, either negative or positive. The greatest conflicts are related to the assessment of the effect of this activity on housing preservation. The group comprising accommodation owners of tourist flats is the one that shows a more dissenting opinion from the rest, confronting especially the group formed by citizens whose income depends on tourism. Originality/value: There is a lack of studies on the perception of tourism impacts associated with online tourism rental platforms. This is the first study to analyze both, how the main stakeholders associated with this activity assess the different impacts derived from this form of tourist accommodation as a whole and the conflicts derived from such an assessment. An additional innovation is that the analysis investigates the potential fear of disease transmission caused by tourists. It would be interesting to continue this research by applying the same questionnaire in different environments, such as rural areas or societies with different structures from the one analyzed here. Likewise, future in-depth analysis of some of the conflicts is recommended so as to ascertain their origin. © 2021, Emerald Publishing Limited.

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