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1.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e042035, 2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455708

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common and is associated with negative long-term outcomes. Given the heterogeneity of the syndrome, the ability to predict outcomes of AKI may be beneficial towards effectively using resources and personalising AKI care. This systematic review will identify, describe and assess current models in the literature for the prediction of outcomes in hospitalised patients with AKI. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Relevant literature from a comprehensive search across six databases will be imported into Covidence. Abstract screening and full-text review will be conducted independently by two team members, and any conflicts will be resolved by a third member. Studies to be included are cohort studies and randomised controlled trials with at least 100 subjects, adult hospitalised patients, with AKI. Only those studies evaluating multivariable predictive models reporting a statistical measure of accuracy (area under the receiver operating curve or C-statistic) and predicting resolution of AKI, progression of AKI, subsequent dialysis and mortality will be included. Data extraction will be performed independently by two team members, with a third reviewer available to resolve conflicts. Results will be reported using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Risk of bias will be assessed using Prediction model Risk Of Bias ASsessment Tool. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: We are committed to open dissemination of our results through the registration of our systematic review on PROSPERO and future publication. We hope that our review provides a platform for future work in realm of using artificial intelligence to predict outcomes of common diseases. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42019137274.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Artificial Intelligence , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Adult , Humans , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Renal Dialysis , Systematic Reviews as Topic
2.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(4): 490-499.e1, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012701

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with acute kidney injury (AKI), it is unclear whether this association is independent of traditional risk factors such as hypotension, nephrotoxin exposure, and inflammation. We tested the independent association of COVID-19 with AKI. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, observational, cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Patients admitted to 1 of 6 hospitals within the Yale New Haven Health System between March 10, 2020, and August 31, 2020, with results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing via polymerase chain reaction of a nasopharyngeal sample. EXPOSURE: Positive test for SARS-CoV-2. OUTCOME: AKI by KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) criteria. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Evaluated the association of COVID-19 with AKI after controlling for time-invariant factors at admission (eg, demographic characteristics, comorbidities) and time-varying factors updated continuously during hospitalization (eg, vital signs, medications, laboratory results, respiratory failure) using time-updated Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: Of the 22,122 patients hospitalized, 2,600 tested positive and 19,522 tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. Compared with patients who tested negative, patients with COVID-19 had more AKI (30.6% vs 18.2%; absolute risk difference, 12.5% [95% CI, 10.6%-14.3%]) and dialysis-requiring AKI (8.5% vs 3.6%) and lower rates of recovery from AKI (58% vs 69.8%). Compared with patients without COVID-19, patients with COVID-19 had higher inflammatory marker levels (C-reactive protein, ferritin) and greater use of vasopressors and diuretic agents. Compared with patients without COVID-19, patients with COVID-19 had a higher rate of AKI in univariable analysis (hazard ratio, 1.84 [95% CI, 1.73-1.95]). In a fully adjusted model controlling for demographic variables, comorbidities, vital signs, medications, and laboratory results, COVID-19 remained associated with a high rate of AKI (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.40 [95% CI, 1.29-1.53]). LIMITATIONS: Possibility of residual confounding. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with high rates of AKI not fully explained by adjustment for known risk factors. This suggests the presence of mechanisms of AKI not accounted for in this analysis, which may include a direct effect of COVID-19 on the kidney or other unmeasured mediators. Future studies should evaluate the possible unique pathways by which COVID-19 may cause AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Acute Kidney Injury/blood , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Aged , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Creatinine/blood , Diuretics/therapeutic use , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/blood , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , United States/epidemiology , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use
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