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1.
Am Surg ; : 31348211047466, 2021 Oct 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467788

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The 2019 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic led to stay-at-home (SAH) orders in Pennsylvania targeted at reducing viral transmission. Limitations in population mobility under SAH have been associated with decreased motor vehicle collisions (MVC) and related injuries, but the impact of these measures on severity of injury remains unknown. The goal of this study is to measure the incidence, severity, and outcomes of MVC-related injuries associated with SAH in Pennsylvania. MATERIALS & METHODS: We conducted a retrospective geospatial analysis of MVCs during the early COVID-19 pandemic using a state-wide trauma registry. We compared characteristics of patients with MVC-related injuries admitted to Pennsylvania trauma centers during SAH measures (March 21-July 31, 2020) with those from the corresponding periods in 2018 and 2019. We also compared incidence of MVCs for each zip code tabulation area (ZCTA) in Pennsylvania for the same time periods using geospatial mapping. RESULTS: Of 15,550 trauma patients treated during the SAH measures, 3486 (22.4%) resulted from MVCs. Compared to preceding years, MVC incidence decreased 10% under SAH measures with no change in mortality rate. However, in ZCTA where MVC incidence decreased, there was a 16% increase in MVC injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: Stay-at-home orders issued in response to the COVID-19 pandemic in Pennsylvania were associated with significant changes in MVC incidence and severity. Identifying such changes may inform resource allocation decisions during future pandemics or SAH events.

3.
Surgery ; 171(2): 533-540, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and associated policies have had important downstream consequences for individuals, communities, and the healthcare system, and they appear to have been accompanied by rising interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to evaluate the incidence of injuries owing to interpersonal violence after implementation of a statewide stay-at-home order in Pennsylvania in March 2020. METHODS: Using the Pennsylvania Trauma Outcome Study registry, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with gunshot wounds, stab wounds, and blunt assault-related injuries attributable to interpersonal violence treated at Pennsylvania trauma centers from March 16 to July 31 of 2018, 2019, and 2020. RESULTS: There were fewer total trauma admissions in 2020 (17,489) vs 2018 (19,290) and 2019 (19,561). Gunshot wounds increased in 2020 to 737 vs 647 for 2019 and 565 for 2018 (P = .028), whereas blunt assault injuries decreased (P = .03). In all time periods, interpersonal violence primarily impacted urban counties. African American men were predominantly affected by gunshot wounds and stab wounds, whereas Caucasian men were predominantly affected by blunt assault injuries. There were more patients with substance abuse disorders and positive drug screens during coronavirus disease than in comparison periods: (stab wound population 52.3% vs 33.9% vs 45.9%, coronavirus disease era vs 2018 vs 2019, respectively P = .0001), (blunt assault injury population 41.4% vs 33.1% vs 33.5%, coronavirus disease era vs 2018 vs 2019, respectively P < .0001). There was no correlation between the incidence of interpersonal violence and coronavirus disease 2019 rates at the county level. CONCLUSION: The implementation of a stay-at-home order was accompanied by rising incidence of gunshot and stab wound injuries in Pennsylvania. Preparedness for future resurgences of coronavirus disease 2019 and other pandemics calls for plans to address injury prevention, recidivism, and access to mental health and substance abuse prevention services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Violence/trends , Wounds, Gunshot/etiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/etiology , Wounds, Stab/etiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Health Policy , Humans , Incidence , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Violence/psychology , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology , Wounds, Gunshot/psychology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/epidemiology , Wounds, Nonpenetrating/psychology , Wounds, Stab/epidemiology , Wounds, Stab/psychology
4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(3): 559-565, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1254951

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic reshaped the health care system in 2020. COVID-19 infection has been associated with poor outcomes after orthopedic surgery and elective, general surgery, but the impact of COVID-19 on outcomes after trauma is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to Pennsylvania trauma centers from March 21 to July 31, 2020. The exposure of interest was COVID-19 (COV+) and the primary outcome was inpatient mortality. Secondary outcomes were length of stay and complications. We compared demographic and injury characteristics between positive, negative, and not-tested patients. We used multivariable regression with coarsened exact matching to estimate the impact of COV+ on outcomes. RESULTS: Of 15,550 included patients, 8,170 (52.5%) were tested for COVID-19 and 219 (2.7%) were positive (COV+). Compared with COVID-19-negative (COV-) patients, COV+ patients were similar in terms of age and sex, but were less often white (53.5% vs. 74.7%, p < 0.0001), and more often uninsured (10.1 vs. 5.6%, p = 0.002). Injury severity was similar, but firearm injuries accounted for 11.9% of COV+ patients versus 5.1% of COV- patients (p < 0.001). Unadjusted mortality for COV+ was double that of COV- patients (9.1% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0001) and length of stay was longer (median, 5 vs. 4 days; p < 0.001). Using coarsened exact matching, COV+ patients had an increased risk of death (odds ratio [OR], 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.29-15.99), any complication (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.08-3.16), and pulmonary complications (OR, 5.79; 95% CI, 2.02-16.54) compared with COV- patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with concomitant traumatic injury and COVID-19 infection have elevated risks of morbidity and mortality. Trauma centers must incorporate an understanding of these risks into patient and family counseling and resource allocation during this pandemic. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, Prognostic Study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Trauma Centers/statistics & numerical data , Wounds and Injuries/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Male , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wounds and Injuries/complications , Wounds, Gunshot/epidemiology
5.
Ann Intern Med ; 174(5): 613-621, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239133

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to surge in the United States and globally. OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of COVID-19-related critical illness, including trends in outcomes and care delivery. DESIGN: Single-health system, multihospital retrospective cohort study. SETTING: 5 hospitals within the University of Pennsylvania Health System. PATIENTS: Adults with COVID-19-related critical illness who were admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) with acute respiratory failure or shock during the initial surge of the pandemic. MEASUREMENTS: The primary exposure for outcomes and care delivery trend analyses was longitudinal time during the pandemic. The primary outcome was all-cause 28-day in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were all-cause death at any time, receipt of mechanical ventilation (MV), and readmissions. RESULTS: Among 468 patients with COVID-19-related critical illness, 319 (68.2%) were treated with MV and 121 (25.9%) with vasopressors. Outcomes were notable for an all-cause 28-day in-hospital mortality rate of 29.9%, a median ICU stay of 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3 to 17 days), a median hospital stay of 13 days (IQR, 7 to 25 days), and an all-cause 30-day readmission rate (among nonhospice survivors) of 10.8%. Mortality decreased over time, from 43.5% (95% CI, 31.3% to 53.8%) to 19.2% (CI, 11.6% to 26.7%) between the first and last 15-day periods in the core adjusted model, whereas patient acuity and other factors did not change. LIMITATIONS: Single-health system study; use of, or highly dynamic trends in, other clinical interventions were not evaluated, nor were complications. CONCLUSION: Among patients with COVID-19-related critical illness admitted to ICUs of a learning health system in the United States, mortality seemed to decrease over time despite stable patient characteristics. Further studies are necessary to confirm this result and to investigate causal mechanisms. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/mortality , Critical Illness/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Shock/mortality , Shock/therapy , APACHE , Academic Medical Centers , Aged , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/virology , Survival Rate
6.
J Emerg Med ; 59(4): 602-603, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680278
7.
Ann Surg ; 272(3): e181-e186, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066507

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the outcomes of patients undergoing tracheostomy for COVID-19 and of healthcare workers performing these procedures. BACKGROUND: Tracheostomy is often performed for prolonged endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients. However, in the context of COVID-19, tracheostomy placement pathways have been altered due to the poor prognosis of intubated patients and the risk of transmission to providers through this highly aerosolizing procedure. METHODS: A prospective single-system multi-center observational cohort study was performed on patients who underwent tracheostomy after acute respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19. RESULTS: Of the 53 patients who underwent tracheostomy, the average time from endotracheal intubation to tracheostomy was 19.7 days ±â€Š6.9 days. The most common indication for tracheostomy was acute respiratory distress syndrome, followed by failure to wean ventilation and post-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation decannulation. Thirty patients (56.6%) were liberated from the ventilator, 16 (30.2%) have been discharged alive, 7 (13.2%) have been decannulated, and 6 (11.3%) died. The average time from tracheostomy to ventilator liberation was 11.8 days ±â€Š6.9 days (range 2-32 days). Both open surgical and percutaneous dilational tracheostomy techniques were performed utilizing methods to mitigate aerosols. No healthcare worker transmissions resulted from performing the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Alterations to tracheostomy practices and processes were successfully instituted. Following these steps, tracheostomy in COVID-19 intubated patients seems safe for both patients and healthcare workers performing the procedure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care , Intubation, Intratracheal , Respiration, Artificial , Tracheostomy , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
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