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1.
Hepatology ; 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1620134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients develop breakthrough coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection despite vaccination. The aim of this study was to identify outcomes in patients with cirrhosis who developed post-vaccination COVID-19. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study among US Veterans with cirrhosis and post-vaccination or unvaccinated COVID-19. Patients were considered fully vaccinated if COVID-19 was diagnosed 14 days after the second dose of either the Pfizer BNT162b2, Moderna 1273-mRNA, or the single dose Janssen Ad.26.COV2.S vaccines, and partially vaccinated if COVID-19 was diagnosed 7 days after the first dose of any vaccine but prior to full vaccination. We investigated the association of post-vaccination COVID-19 with mortality. RESULTS: We identified 3242 unvaccinated and 254 post-vaccination COVID-19 patients with cirrhosis (82 after full and 172 after partial vaccination). In a multivariable analysis of a 1:2 propensity-matched cohort including vaccinated (n=254) and unvaccinated (n=508) participants, post-vaccination COVID-19 was associated with reduced risk of death (aHR 0.21, 95% CI 0.11-0.42). The reduction was observed after both full (aHR 0.22, 95% CI 0.08-0.63) and partial vaccination (aHR 0.19, 95% CI 0.07-0.54), following the 1273-mRNA (aHR 0.12, 95% CI 0.04-0.37) and BNT 162b2 vaccines (aHR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.71), and among patients with compensated (aHR 0.19, 95% CI 0.08-0.45) and decompensated cirrhosis (aHR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.90). Findings were consistent in a sensitivity analysis restricted to participants who developed COVID-19 after vaccine availability. CONCLUSION: Though patients with cirrhosis can develop breakthrough COVID-19 after full or partial vaccination, these infections are associated with reduced mortality.

5.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 80(10): 1322-1329, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346035

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: There is an urgent need to assess the impact of immunosuppressive therapies on the immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: Serological and T-cell ELISpot assays were used to assess the response to first-dose and second-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (with either BNT162b2 mRNA or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines) in 140 participants receiving immunosuppression for autoimmune rheumatic and glomerular diseases. RESULTS: Following first-dose vaccine, 28.6% (34/119) of infection-naïve participants seroconverted and 26.0% (13/50) had detectable T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2. Immune responses were augmented by second-dose vaccine, increasing seroconversion and T-cell response rates to 59.3% (54/91) and 82.6% (38/46), respectively. B-cell depletion at the time of vaccination was associated with failure to seroconvert, and tacrolimus therapy was associated with diminished T-cell responses. Reassuringly, only 8.7% of infection-naïve patients had neither antibody nor T-cell responses detected following second-dose vaccine. In patients with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (19/140), all mounted high-titre antibody responses after first-dose vaccine, regardless of immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are immunogenic in patients receiving immunosuppression, when assessed by a combination of serology and cell-based assays, although the response is impaired compared with healthy individuals. B-cell depletion following rituximab impairs serological responses, but T-cell responses are preserved in this group. We suggest that repeat vaccine doses for serological non-responders should be investigated as means to induce more robust immunological response.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
6.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(8): 2378-2385, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1260607

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical course of COVID-19 includes multiple disease phases. Data describing post-hospital discharge outcomes may provide insight into disease course. Studies describing post-hospitalization outcomes of adults following COVID-19 infection are limited to electronic medical record review, which may underestimate the incidence of outcomes. OBJECTIVE: To determine 30-day post-hospitalization outcomes following COVID-19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study SETTING: Quaternary referral hospital and community hospital in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: COVID-19 infected patients discharged alive from the emergency department (ED) or hospital between March 3 and May 15, 2020. MEASUREMENT: Outcomes included return to an ED, re-hospitalization, and mortality within 30 days of hospital discharge. RESULTS: Thirty-day follow-up data were successfully collected on 94.6% of eligible patients. Among 1344 patients, 16.5% returned to an ED, 9.8% were re-hospitalized, and 2.4% died. Among patients who returned to the ED, 50.0% (108/216) went to a different hospital from the hospital of the index presentation, and 61.1% (132/216) of those who returned were re-hospitalized. In Cox models adjusted for variables selected using the lasso method, age (HR 1.01 per year [95% CI 1.00-1.02]), diabetes (1.54 [1.06-2.23]), and the need for inpatient dialysis (3.78 [2.23-6.43]) during the index presentation were independently associated with a higher re-hospitalization rate. Older age (HR 1.08 [1.05-1.11]) and Asian race (2.89 [1.27-6.61]) were significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients discharged alive following their index presentation for COVID-19, risk for returning to a hospital within 30 days of discharge was substantial. These patients merit close post-discharge follow-up to optimize outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Patient Discharge , Adult , Aftercare , Aged , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospitalization , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Transplant Direct ; 7(4): e678, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124881

ABSTRACT

Background: The rapidly evolving novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic bought many kidney transplant (KT) programs to a halt. Integral to resuming KT activity is understanding the perspectives of potential transplant candidates during this highly dynamic time. Methods: From June 1 to July 7, 2020, a telephone survey of KT candidates on the deceased donor waiting list at Imperial College Renal and Transplant Centre in West London was conducted. The survey captured ongoing COVID-19 exposure risks and patients' views on waitlist (WL) reactivation and undergoing transplantation. Results: Two hundred seven responses were received. Of the respondents, 180 patients (87%) were happy to be reactivated onto the WL; with 141 patients (68%) willing to give consent to transplantation currently, while 53 patients (26%) felt unsure, and 13 patients (6%) would decline a KT. The vast majority of patients had no concerns. In the responses from those who were uncertain or who would decline a KT, concerns about COVID-19 infection and the need for reassurance from transplant units dominated. Universally patients wanted more information about COVID-19 infection risk with KT and the precautions being taken to reduce this risk. Conclusions: The majority of surveyed patients are in favor of reactivation and receiving a KT despite the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Reactivation of candidates cannot be assumed and should take an individualized approach, incorporating clinical risk with patient perspectives. Improved communication with KT candidates is highly requested.

9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37: 212, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058635

ABSTRACT

At the end of December 2019, they emerged a new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), triggering a pandemic of an acute respiratory syndrome (COVID-19) in humans. We report the relevant features of the first two confirmed cases of COVID-19 recorded from the 29th April 2020 in the Far North Region of Cameroon. We did a review of the files of these two patients who were admitted to the internal medicine ward of a medical Centre in Maroua Town, Far North Region. We present 2 cases of symptomatic COVID-19 patients, both males and health personnel, with an average age of 53 years, with no recent history of travel to a COVID-19 zone at risk and working in a then COVID-19 free region. They presented with extreme fatigue as their main symptom. Both were treated initially for severe malaria with quinine sulfate infusion with initial relief of symptoms. In the first confirmed case, at his re-hospitalization with an acute respiratory syndrome, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test in search of SARS-CoV-2 was requested with his results available 7 days into admission. For the second case, he had his results 48 hours on admission while he was prepared to be discharged. Both control PCR tests for COVID-19 came back negative 14 days after hospitalization. Health personnel remains a group at risk for the COVID-19 infection. The clinical manifestation at an early stage may be atypical mimicking endemic tropical infections. Also, the therapeutic potential of quinine salts in the relief of symptoms of COVID-19 is questionable and remains a subject to explore in our context.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Antimalarials/administration & dosage , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cameroon , Fatigue/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Quinine/administration & dosage
10.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(1): 46-55, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987632

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There are limited data pertaining to comparative outcomes of remaining on dialysis versus kidney transplantation as the threat of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remains. In this study we delineate the differential risks involved using serologic methods to help define exposure rates. Methods: From a cohort of 1433 patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), we analyzed COVID-19 infection rates and outcomes in 299 waitlist patients compared with 237 transplant recipients within their first year post-transplant. Patients were followed over a 68-day period from the time our transplant program closed due to COVID-19. Results: The overall mortality rates in waitlist and transplant populations were equivalent (P = 0.69). However, COVID-19 infection was more commonly diagnosed in the waitlist patients (P = 0.001), who were more likely to be tested by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (P = 0.0004). Once infection was confirmed, mortality risk was higher in the transplant patients (P = 0.015). The seroprevalence in dialysis and transplant patients with undetected infection was 18.3% and 4.6%, respectively (P = 0.0001). After adjusting for potential screening bias, the relative risk of death after a diagnosis of COVID-19 remained higher in transplant recipients (hazard ratio = 3.36 [95% confidence interval = 1.19-9.50], P = 0.022). Conclusions: Although COVID-19 infection was more common in the waitlist patients, a higher COVID-19‒associated mortality rate was seen in the transplant recipients, resulting in comparable overall mortality rates.

12.
Preprint in English | ProQuest Central | ID: ppcovidwho-2112

ABSTRACT

We argue that predictions of a ‘tsunami’ of mental health problems as a consequence of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the lockdown are overstated;feelings of anxiety and sadness are entirely normal reactions to difficult circumstances, not symptoms of poor mental health. Some people will need specialised mental health support, especially those already leading tough lives;we need immediate reversal of years of underfunding of community mental health services. However, the disproportionate effects of COVID-19 on the most disadvantaged, especially BAME people placed at risk by their social and economic conditions, were entirely predictable. Mental health is best ensured by urgently rebuilding the social and economic supports stripped away over the last decade. Governments must pumfunds into local authorities to rebuild community services, peer support, mutual aid and local community and voluntary sector organisations. Health care organisations must tackle racism and discrimination to ensure genuine equal access to universal health care. Government must replace highly conditional benefit systems by something like a universal basic income. All economic and social policies must be subjected to a legally binding mental health audit. This may sound unfeasibly expensive, but the social and economic costs, not to mention the costs in personal and community suffering, though often invisible, are far greater.

13.
Wellcome Open Res ; 5: 166, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-657527

ABSTRACT

We argue that predictions of a 'tsunami' of mental health problems as a consequence of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and the lockdown are overstated; feelings of anxiety and sadness are entirely normal reactions to difficult circumstances, not symptoms of poor mental health.  Some people will need specialised mental health support, especially those already leading tough lives; we need immediate reversal of years of underfunding of community mental health services.  However, the disproportionate effects of COVID-19 on the most disadvantaged, especially BAME people placed at risk by their social and economic conditions, were entirely predictable. Mental health is best ensured by urgently rebuilding the social and economic supports stripped away over the last decade. Governments must pump funds into local authorities to rebuild community services, peer support, mutual aid and local community and voluntary sector organisations.  Health care organisations must tackle racism and discrimination to ensure genuine equal access to universal health care.  Government must replace highly conditional benefit systems by something like a universal basic income. All economic and social policies must be subjected to a legally binding mental health audit. This may sound unfeasibly expensive, but the social and economic costs, not to mention the costs in personal and community suffering, though often invisible, are far greater.

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