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2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1166-1173, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1706028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentiments of vaccine hesitancy and distrust in public health institutions have complicated the government-led coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine control strategy in the United States. As the first to receive the vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine attitudes among frontline workers are consequential for COVID-19 control and public opinion of the vaccine. METHODS: In this study, we used a repeated cross-sectional survey administered at 3 time points between 24 September 2020 and 6 February 2021 to a cohort of employees of the University of California, Los Angeles Health and the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The primary outcome of interest was COVID-19 vaccination intent and vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Confidence in COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine uptake rose significantly over time. At survey 1, confidence in vaccine protection was 46.4% among healthcare workers (HCWs) and 34.6% among first responders (FRs); by survey 3, this had risen to 90.0% and 75.7%, respectively. At survey 1, about one-third of participants intended to receive a vaccine as soon as possible. By survey 3, 96.0% of HCWs and 87.5% of FRs had received a COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes toward vaccine uptake increased over the study period, likely a result of increased public confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, targeted communications, a COVID-19 winter surge in Los Angeles County, and ease of access from employer-sponsored vaccine distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259703, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506037

ABSTRACT

Two mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273) against severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are globally authorized as a two-dose regimen. Understanding the magnitude and duration of protective immune responses is vital to curbing the pandemic. We enrolled 461 high-risk health services workers at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and first responders in the Los Angeles County Fire Department (LACoFD) to assess the humoral responses in previously infected (PI) and infection naïve (NPI) individuals to mRNA-based vaccines (BNT162b2/Pfizer- BioNTech or mRNA-1273/Moderna). A chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay was used to detect antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 Spike in vaccinees prior to (n = 21) and following each vaccine dose (n = 246 following dose 1 and n = 315 following dose 2), and at days 31-60 (n = 110) and 61-90 (n = 190) following completion of the 2-dose series. Both vaccines induced robust antibody responses in all immunocompetent individuals. Previously infected individuals achieved higher median peak titers (p = 0.002) and had a slower rate of decay (p = 0.047) than infection-naïve individuals. mRNA-1273 vaccinated infection-naïve individuals demonstrated modestly higher titers following each dose (p = 0.005 and p = 0.029, respectively) and slower rates of antibody decay (p = 0.003) than those who received BNT162b2. A subset of previously infected individuals (25%) required both doses in order to reach peak antibody titers. The biologic significance of the differences between previously infected individuals and between the mRNA-1273 and BNT162b2 vaccines remains uncertain, but may have important implications for booster strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2 , Academic Medical Centers , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , California/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Emergency Responders , Health Personnel , Humans , Immunoassay , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Universities
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(7): 1166-1173, 2022 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320295

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sentiments of vaccine hesitancy and distrust in public health institutions have complicated the government-led coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine control strategy in the United States. As the first to receive the vaccine, COVID-19 vaccine attitudes among frontline workers are consequential for COVID-19 control and public opinion of the vaccine. METHODS: In this study, we used a repeated cross-sectional survey administered at 3 time points between 24 September 2020 and 6 February 2021 to a cohort of employees of the University of California, Los Angeles Health and the Los Angeles County Fire Department. The primary outcome of interest was COVID-19 vaccination intent and vaccine uptake. RESULTS: Confidence in COVID-19 vaccines and vaccine uptake rose significantly over time. At survey 1, confidence in vaccine protection was 46.4% among healthcare workers (HCWs) and 34.6% among first responders (FRs); by survey 3, this had risen to 90.0% and 75.7%, respectively. At survey 1, about one-third of participants intended to receive a vaccine as soon as possible. By survey 3, 96.0% of HCWs and 87.5% of FRs had received a COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Attitudes toward vaccine uptake increased over the study period, likely a result of increased public confidence in COVID-19 vaccines, targeted communications, a COVID-19 winter surge in Los Angeles County, and ease of access from employer-sponsored vaccine distribution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Vaccination
7.
Pediatr Transplant ; 25(5): e14025, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203896

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has altered health seeking behaviors and has increased attention to non-pharmaceutical interventions that reduce the risk of transmission of respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2 and influenza. While the potential impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on influenza is not fully known, in the Southern hemisphere influenza infection rates appear to be very low. Influenza vaccine efficacy for 2019-2020 season was comparable to prior season and influenza vaccine recommendations for pediatric immunizations remain similar to prior years. Influenza treatments continue to include neuraminidase inhibitors as well as baloxavir for treatment and in some instances prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chemoprevention , Child , Child, Preschool , Coinfection , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Immunization , Infant , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Young Adult , Zoonoses
8.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 628810, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110318

ABSTRACT

During the COVID pandemic, a surge in pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) cases appears to be occurring, potentially due to the presence of autoantibody-induced immune dysregulation triggered by COVID-19. We describe one such case in a previously healthy 7-year-old with asymptomatic COVID-19 presenting with a high nasopharyngeal SARS CoV-2 virus load, detectable COVID-19 IgG antibodies, diabetic keto-acidosis and islet cell autoantibodies. COVID-19 is not a trivial disease in children and adolescents and can lead to lifelong sequelae such as T1DM. Raising awareness about a possible association between COVID-19 and T1DM in children is critical.

10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(6): 1178-1180, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-668710

ABSTRACT

The 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic highlights the experience of communities in the global South that have grappled with vulnerability and scarcity for decades. In the global North, many frontline workers are now being similarly forced to provide and ration care in unprecedented ways, with minimal guidance. We outline six reflections gained as Western practitioners working in resource-denied settings which inform our current experience with COVID-19. The reflections include the following: managing trauma, remaining flexible in dynamic situations, and embracing discomfort to think bigger about context-specific solutions to collectively build back our systems. Through this contextualized reflection on resilience, we hope to motivate strength and solidarity for providers, patients, and health systems, while proposing critical questions for our response moving forward.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Care Rationing/ethics , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Public Health/economics , COVID-19 , Clinical Decision-Making/ethics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Health Care Rationing/economics , Healthcare Disparities/ethics , Humans , Interpersonal Relations , North America/epidemiology , Pandemics/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Public Health/ethics , SARS-CoV-2 , Uncertainty
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