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Neurologia (Engl Ed) ; 2021 May 11.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804923


BACKGROUND: Ischaemic stroke may be a major complication of SARS-CoV-2 infection.Studying and characterising the different aetiological subtypes, clinical characteristics, and functional outcomes may be valuable in guiding patient selection for optimal management and treatment. METHODS: Data were collected retrospectively on consecutive patients with COVID-19 who developed acute focal brain ischaemia (between 1 March and 19 April 2020) at a tertiary university hospital in Madrid (Spain). RESULTS: During the study period, 1594 patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. We found 22 patients with ischaemic stroke (1.38%), 6 of whom did not meet the inclusion criteria. The remaining 16 patients were included in the study (15 cases of ischaemic stroke and one case of transient ischaemic attack).Median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 9 (interquartile range: 16), and mean (standard deviation) age was 73 years (12.8). Twelve patients (75%) were men. Mean time from COVID-19 symptom onset to stroke onset was 13 days. Large vessel occlusion was identified in 12 patients (75%).We detected elevated levels of D-dimer in 87.5% of patients and C-reactive protein in 81.2%. The main aetiology was atherothrombotic stroke (9 patients, 56.3%), with the predominant subtype being endoluminal thrombus (5 patients, 31.2%), involving the internal carotid artery in 4 cases and the aortic arch in one. The mortality rate in our series was 44% (7 of 16 patients). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19, the most frequent stroke aetiology was atherothrombosis, with a high proportion of endoluminal thrombus (31.2% of patients). Our clinical and laboratory data support COVID-19-associated coagulopathy as a relevant pathophysiological mechanism for ischaemic stroke in these patients.

Epilepsy Behav ; 125: 108379, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458792


BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 in people with epilepsy (PWE) and evaluate seizure control in PWE during and after COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective, observational, multicenter study conducted in 14 hospitals. Medical records of randomly selected PWE followed at neurology outpatient clinics were reviewed. Proportion of PWE with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 during 2020 was calculated. Risk factors associated with COVID-19 and its morbimortality were evaluated. RESULTS: 2751 PWE were included, mean age 48.8 years (18-99), 72.4% had focal epilepsy, and 35% were drug-refractory. COVID-19 prevalence in PWE was 5.53%, while in the Spanish population was 4.26%. Proportion of admissions to hospital, ICU, and deaths in PWE were 17.1%, 2%, and 4.61% of COVID-19 cases, while in Spanish population were 10.81%, 0.95%, and 2.57%, respectively. A severe form of COVID-19 occurred in 11.8%; dyslipidemia, institutionalization at long-term care facilities, intellectual disability, and older age were associated risk factors. Older age, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiac disease, and institutionalization were associated with mortality from COVID-19. Seizure control was stable in 90.1% of PWE during acute COVID-19, while 8.6% reported an increase in seizure frequency. During post-COVID-19 follow-up, 4.6% reported seizure control worsening. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 was moderately prevalent in PWE. One out of 5 patients required medical attention and 4.6% died due to COVID-19. Older age, dyslipidemia, institutionalization, and intellectual disability were significant risk factors associated with severe COVID-19. Seizure control remained stable during COVID-19 and throughout long-term follow-up in most PWE who contracted the infection.

COVID-19 , Epilepsy , Aged , Epilepsy/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2