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1.
Antimicrobial Stewardship and Healthcare Epidemiology ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1860196

ABSTRACT

In this cross-sectional survey, we assessed knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding operating room air-change rates, climate change, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic implications. Climate change and healthcare pollution were considered problematic. Respondents checked air exchange rates for COVID-19 and ∼25% increased them. Respondents had difficulty completing questions concerning hospital heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. © The Author(s), 2022.

2.
J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. ; 126:33, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1791943

ABSTRACT

The development of an international, precompetitive, collaborative, ultraviolet (UV) research consortium is discussed as an opportunity to lay the groundwork for a new UV commercial industry and the supply chain to support this industry. History has demonstrated that consortia can offer promising approaches to solve many common, current industry challenges, such as the paucity of data regarding the doses of ultraviolet-C (UV-C, 200 nm to 280 nm) radiation necessary to achieve the desired reductions in healthcare pathogens and the ability of mobile disinfection devices to deliver adequate doses to the different types of surfaces in a whole-room environment. Standard methods for testing are only in the initial stages of development, making it difficult to choose a specific UV-C device for a healthcare application. Currently, the public interest in UV-C disinfection applications is elevated due to the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes the respiratory coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). By channeling the expertise of different UV industry stakeholder sectors into a unified international consortium, innovation in UV measurements and data could be developed to support test methods and standards development for UV healthcare equipment. As discussed in this paper, several successful examples of consortia are applicable to the UV industry to help solve these types of common problems. It is anticipated that a consortium for the industry could lead to UV applications for disinfection becoming globally prolific and commonplace in residential, work, business, and school settings as well as in transportation (bus, rail, air, ship) environments. Aggressive elimination of infectious agents by UV-C technologies would also help to reduce the evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria.

3.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-330195

ABSTRACT

Objective: Real-world data have been critical for rapid-knowledge generation throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. To ensure high-quality results are delivered to guide clinical decision making and the public health response, as well as characterize the response to interventions, it is essential to establish the accuracy of COVID-19 case definitions derived from administrative data to identify infections and hospitalizations. Methods: Electronic Health Record (EHR) data were obtained from the clinical data warehouse of the Yale New Haven Health System (Yale, primary site) and 3 hospital systems of the Mayo Clinic (validation site). Detailed characteristics on demographics, diagnoses, and laboratory results were obtained for all patients with either a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen test or ICD-10 diagnosis of COVID-19 (U07.1) between April 1, 2020 and March 1, 2021. Various computable phenotype definitions were evaluated for their accuracy to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalizations. Results: Of the 69,423 individuals with either a diagnosis code or a laboratory diagnosis of a SARS-CoV-2 infection at Yale, 61,023 had a principal or a secondary diagnosis code for COVID-19 and 50,355 had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. Among those with a positive laboratory test, 38,506 (76.5%) and 3449 (6.8%) had a principal and secondary diagnosis code of COVID-19, respectively, while 8400 (16.7%) had no COVID-19 diagnosis. Moreover, of the 61,023 patients with a COVID-19 diagnosis code, 19,068 (31.2%) did not have a positive laboratory test for SARS-CoV-2 in the EHR. Of the 20 cases randomly sampled from this latter group for manual review, all had a COVID-19 diagnosis code related to asymptomatic testing with negative subsequent test results. The positive predictive value (precision) and sensitivity (recall) of a COVID-19 diagnosis in the medical record for a documented positive SARS-CoV-2 test were 68.8% and 83.3%, respectively. Among 5,109 patients who were hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of COVID-19, 4843 (94.8%) had a positive SARS-CoV-2 test within the 2 weeks preceding hospital admission or during hospitalization. In addition, 789 hospitalizations had a secondary diagnosis of COVID-19, of which 446 (56.5%) had a principal diagnosis consistent with severe clinical manifestation of COVID-19 (e.g., sepsis or respiratory failure). Compared with the cohort that had a principal diagnosis of COVID-19, those with a secondary diagnosis had a more than 2-fold higher in-hospital mortality rate (13.2% vs 28.0%, P<0.001). In the validation sample at Mayo Clinic, diagnosis codes more consistently identified SARS-CoV-2 infection (precision of 95%) but had lower recall (63.5%) with substantial variation across the 3 Mayo Clinic sites. Similar to Yale, diagnosis codes consistently identified COVID-19 hospitalizations at Mayo, with hospitalizations defined by secondary diagnosis code with 2-fold higher in-hospital mortality compared to those with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19. Conclusions: COVID-19 diagnosis codes misclassified the SARS-CoV-2 infection status of many people, with implications for clinical research and epidemiological surveillance. Moreover, the codes had different performance across two academic health systems and identified groups with different risks of mortality. Real-world data from the EHR can be used to in conjunction with diagnosis codes to improve the identification of people infected with SARS-CoV-2.

4.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-326567

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence and detection in Wuhan, China in late 2019, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 has spread to nearly every country around the world, resulting in hundreds of thousands of infections to date. The virus was first detected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States in January, 2020, with subsequent COVID-19 outbreaks detected in all 50 states by early March. To uncover the sources of SARS-CoV-2 introductions and patterns of spread within the U.S., we sequenced nine viral genomes from early reported COVID-19 patients in Connecticut. Our phylogenetic analysis places the majority of these genomes with viruses sequenced from Washington state. By coupling our genomic data with domestic and international travel patterns, we show that early SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Connecticut was likely driven by domestic introductions. Moreover, the risk of domestic importation to Connecticut exceeded that of international importation by mid-March regardless of our estimated impacts of federal travel restrictions. This study provides evidence for widespread, sustained transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within the U.S. and highlights the critical need for local surveillance.

5.
Environmental Science & Technology Letters ; : 7, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1629828

ABSTRACT

Exhaled respiratory droplets and aerosols can carry infectious viruses and are an important mode of transmission for COVID-19. Recent studies have been successful in detecting airborne SARS-CoV-2 RNA in indoor settings using active sampling methods. The cost, size, and maintenance of these samplers, however, limit their long-term monitoring ability in high-risk transmission areas. As an alternative, passive samplers can be small, lightweight, and inexpensive and do not require electrical power or maintenance for continual operation. Integration of passive samplers into wearable designs can be used to better understand personal exposure to the respiratory virus. This study evaluated the use of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based passive sampler to assess personal exposure to aerosol and droplet SARS-CoV-2. The rate of uptake of virus-laden aerosol on PDMS was determined in lab-based rotating drum experiments to estimate time-weighted averaged airborne viral concentrations from passive sampler viral loading. The passive sampler was then embedded in a wearable clip design and distributed to community members across Connecticut to surveil personal SARS-CoV-2 exposure. The virus was detected on clips worn by five of the 62 participants (8%) with personal exposure ranging from 4 to 112 copies of SARS-CoV-2 RNA/m(3), predominantly in indoor restaurant settings. Our findings demonstrate that PDMS-based passive samplers may serve as a useful exposure assessment tool for airborne viral exposure in real-world high-risk settings and provide avenues for early detection of potential cases and guidance on site-specific infection control protocols that preempt community transmission.

6.
Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology ; 126, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1380069

ABSTRACT

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) hosted an international workshop on ultraviolet-C (UV-C) disinfection technologies on January 14-15, 2020, in Gaithersburg, Maryland, in collaboration with the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA). This successful public event, as evidenced by the participation of more than 150 attendees, with 65 % from the ultraviolet technology industry, was part of an ongoing collaborative effort between NIST and the IUVA and its affiliates to examine the measurement and standards needs for pathogen abatement with UV-C in the healthcare whole-room environment. Prior to and since this event, stakeholders from industry, academia, government, and public health services have been collaboratively engaged with NIST to accelerate the development and use of accurate measurements and models for UV-C disinfection technologies and facilitate technology transfer. The workshop served as an open forum to continue this discussion with a technical focus centered on the effective design, use, and implementation of UV-C technologies for the prevention and treatment of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) in complex hospital settings. These settings include patient rooms, operating rooms, common staging areas, ventilation systems, personal protective equipment, and tools for the reprocessing and disinfecting of instruments or devices used in medical procedures, such as catheters and ventilators. The critical need for UV-C technologies for disinfection has been amplified by the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), stimulating an even greater emphasis on identifying testing and performance metrology needs. This paper discusses these topics based on the international workshop and community activities since the workshop, including a public World-Wide-Web-based seminar with more than 500 registered attendees on September 30, 2020;an international conference on UV-C technologies for air and surface disinfection, December 8-9, 2020;and a webinar on returning to normalcy with the use of UV-C technologies, April 27 and 29, 2021. This article also serves as an introduction to a special section of the Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, where full papers address recent technical, noncommercial, UV-C technology and pathogen-abatement investigations. The set of papers provides keen insights from the vantage points of medicine and industry. Recent technical developments, successes, and needs in optics and photonics, radiation physics, biological efficacy, and the needs of future markets in UV-C technologies are described to provide a concise compilation of the community's efforts and the state of the field. Standards needs are identified and discussed throughout this special section. This article provides a summary of the essential role of standards for innovation and implementation of UV-C technology for improved patient care and public health. © 2021 National Institute of Standards and Technology. All rights reserved.

7.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S313, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185854

ABSTRACT

Background: Data early in the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic suggested frontline healthcare workers (HCW) may account for 10-20% of all infections. CDC estimated 600,000 infections in HCWs. Symptom screening is a strategy to prevent healthcare-associated transmission. This method may not identify asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic carriers. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic healthcare workers in a 1541-bed academic medical center. Although recruitment began in designated COVID-19 units, we expanded to all HCWs providing care to hospitalized patients during the pandemic. Data was gathered on demographics, work area in the hospital and daily questionnaires were sent listing symptoms of SARS-CoV-2. Protocol included twice weekly self-collected nasopharyngeal swab and saliva for SARS-CoV-2 N1 and N2.Those with positive PCR result, underwent telephone survey to assess symptomatology and severity of illness. Results: A total 525 HCWs began the study protocol and 16 were identified as PCR positive. Samples included concordant saliva and NP samples on 9 (56%), exclusively NP samples on 5 (31%) and 2 (12%) HCWs were positive by saliva PCR only. Majority were female, and all were nursing staff;with 19% reported not working in a designated COVID-19 unit. During the course of this active surveillance, universal masking was mandated in the institution. Rhinorrhea and headache were reported by 6 (38%), 5 (31%) reported cough and 3 (19%) developed myalgia. Changes in smell and taste preceded the positive PCR test in 2 (12%). One HCW reported developing a fever with acute illness. All were notified about their PCR positive status by institution's occupational health department and self-isolated to monitor for symptoms. Conclusion: The spectrum of disease in this HCW cohort is similar to mild disease in the community. Due to high incidence of asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic HCWs, active surveillance with routine testing proves be beneficial to prevent hospital transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Universal masking significantly decreased the HCW positive rate in our study, underscoring the need for universal efforts to mitigate healthcare-associated transmission with self-monitoring, face mask use, and other infection prevention behaviors like hand hygiene.

8.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S295-S296, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185818

ABSTRACT

Background: Smell loss has been recognized as an important, and potentially early, sign of COVID-19. However, to date smell loss has only been assessed in retrospective, COVID+ cohorts, and largely through self-report. The objective of this study was to implement a daily standardized behavioral test of smell sensitivity in healthcare workers (HCW) to capture changes in smell sensitivity over time and to assess whether these changes occur prior to positive COVID test. Methods: The study enrolled 500 high-risk COVID-negative HCW during the COVID-19 epidemic in Connecticut, beginning March 28, 2020 (80% F, mean age 38, 58% nurses). Initially, HCW received a daily symptom questionnaire with parosmia screening questions. On April 23 we introduced the “Jiffy”, a daily at-home psychophysical test of smell sensitivity, where olfactory stimuli are sampled and rated for perceived intensity. SARS-CoV-2 infection was tested every three days by PCR of nasopharyngeal swabs or saliva Results: Of the first 500 enrolled HCW, 376 HCW (75%) completed the Jiffy 4528 times (mean 12 times/HCW). 17/500 HCW (3.4%) had a COVID+ test, of which 9/17 (53%) reported smell loss through the Jiffy or the daily symptom survey. 6/9 (67%) reported smell loss that preceded or was concurrent with a COVID+ test. 8/17 COVID+ HCW completed the Jiffy, with 5/8 (63%) reporting reductions in smell versus 42/368 (11%) COVID- HCW (OR=13, 95% CI: 2.4-85, p=.001). COVID+ HCW rated their greatest reduction in smell sensitivity as slight (40%) and severe (60%), versus slight (88%) and moderate (12%) in COVID- HCW. 16/17 COVID+ HCW completed a daily symptom survey (mean 14 times/HCW), with 8/16 (50%) ever reporting parosmia versus 90/466 (19%) of COVID- HCW (OR=4.2, 95% CI: 1.3-13, p=.007). Overall, parosmia was the first reported symptom in 3/13 (23%) COVID+ HCW who reported symptoms. Conclusion: We conducted a prospective study of smell testing in a population at high risk for COVID-19 using two parallel approaches. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of at-home smell testing for assessing parosmia during COVID-19, in some cases even prior to a positive PCR result. Given the urgent need for widespread, lowcost, non-invasive testing for COVID-19, we are now developing an easy-to-use app to distribute this survey more widely to high-risk populations. (Table Presented).

9.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 7(SUPPL 1):S165, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1185700

ABSTRACT

Background: Initial CDC recommendations for passive monitoring of COVID-19 related symptoms among staff may not be sufficient in preventing the introduction and transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in healthcare settings. We therefore implemented active monitoring for SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers (HCWs) at an academic medical center during the COVID-19 epidemic in northeast US. Methods: We recruited a cohort of HCWs at Yale New Haven Hospital who worked in COVID-19 units and did not have COVID-19 related symptoms between March 28 and June 1, 2020. During follow-up, participants provided daily information on symptoms by responding to a web-based questionnaire, self-administered nasopharyngeal (NP) and saliva specimens every 3 days, and blood specimens every 14 days. We performed SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR and an anti-spike protein IgM and IgG ELISA to identify virological and serological-confirmed infection, respectively. Results: We enrolled 525 (13%) amongst 4,136 HCW of whom daily information on symptoms and NP, saliva, and blood specimens were obtained for 66% (of 13208), 42% (or 1977), 44% (of 2071) and 65% (of 1099), respectively, of the follow-up measurement points. We identified 16 (3.0% of 525) HCWs with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and an additional 12 (2.3% of 525) who were not tested by PCR or had negative PCR results but had serological evidence of infection. The overall cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 5.3% (28 of 525) amongst HCWs. Cases were not identified by hospital protocols for passive staff self-monitoring for symptoms. Amongst 16 PCR-confirmed cases, 9 (56%) of the 16 PCR-confirmed HCW had symptoms during or after the date of initial detection. We did not identify an epidemiological link between the 28 confirmed cases. Conclusion: We found that a significant proportion (5.3%) of HCWs were infected with SARS-CoV-2 during the COVID-19 epidemic. In the setting of universal PPE use, infections were possibly acquired in the community rather than stemming from patient-HCW or HCW-HCW transmission. Passive monitoring of symptoms is inadequate in preventing introductions of SARS-CoV-2 into the healthcare setting due to asymptomatic and oligosymptomatic presentations.

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