Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 18 de 18
Filter
2.
Antimicrob Steward Healthc Epidemiol ; 2(1): e40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860196

ABSTRACT

In this cross-sectional survey, we assessed knowledge, attitudes and behaviors regarding operating room air-change rates, climate change, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic implications. Climate change and healthcare pollution were considered problematic. Respondents checked air exchange rates for COVID-19 and ∼25% increased them. Respondents had difficulty completing questions concerning hospital heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems.

4.
NPJ Digit Med ; 5(1): 27, 2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735293

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis codes are used to study SARS-CoV2 infections and COVID-19 hospitalizations in administrative and electronic health record (EHR) data. Using EHR data (April 2020-March 2021) at the Yale-New Haven Health System and the three hospital systems of the Mayo Clinic, computable phenotype definitions based on ICD-10 diagnosis of COVID-19 (U07.1) were evaluated against positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR or antigen tests. We included 69,423 patients at Yale and 75,748 at Mayo Clinic with either a diagnosis code or a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. The precision and recall of a COVID-19 diagnosis for a positive test were 68.8% and 83.3%, respectively, at Yale, with higher precision (95%) and lower recall (63.5%) at Mayo Clinic, varying between 59.2% in Rochester to 97.3% in Arizona. For hospitalizations with a principal COVID-19 diagnosis, 94.8% at Yale and 80.5% at Mayo Clinic had an associated positive laboratory test, with secondary diagnosis of COVID-19 identifying additional patients. These patients had a twofold higher inhospital mortality than based on principal diagnosis. Standardization of coding practices is needed before the use of diagnosis codes in clinical research and epidemiological surveillance of COVID-19.

5.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 24(2): e13782, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583252

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Solid organ transplant recipients are at increased risk of COVID-19-associated morbidity and mortality. AIMS: We describe a nosocomial outbreak investigation on an immunocompromised inpatient unit. METHODS: Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 were identified. An epidemiologic investigation was assisted with whole genome sequencing of positive samples. RESULTS: Two patients were identified as potential index cases; one presented with diarrhea and was initially not isolated, and the other developed hypoxemia on hospital day 18 before testing positive. Following identification of a SARS-CoV-2 cluster, the unit was closed and all patients and staff received surveillance testing revealing eight additional positive patients and staff members. Whole genome sequencing confirmed an outbreak. Enhanced infection prevention practices mitigated further spread. Asymptomatic patients with COVID-19 were successfully treated with bamlanivimab. DISCUSSION: Preventing SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in transplant units poses unique challenges as patients may have atypical presentations of COVID-19. Immunocompromised patients who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 while asymptomatic may benefit from monoclonal antibody therapy to prevent disease progression. All hospital staff members working with immunocompromised patients should be promptly encouraged to follow infection prevention behaviors and receive SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks on immunocompromised units can be mitigated through prompt identification of cases and robust infection prevention practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Vaccination
6.
Ann Emerg Med ; 79(2): 182-186, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1401173

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Our institution experienced a change in SARS-CoV-2 testing policy as well as substantial changes in local COVID-19 prevalence, allowing for a unique examination of the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 testing and emergency department (ED) length of stay. METHODS: This was an observational interrupted time series of all patients admitted to an academic health system between March 15, 2020, and September 30, 2020. Given testing limitations from March 15 to April 24, all patients receiving SARS-CoV-2 tests were symptomatic. On April 24, testing was expanded to all ED admissions. The primary and secondary outcomes were ED length of stay and number needed to test to obtain a positive, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 70,856 patients were cared for in the EDs during the 7-month period. The testing change increased admission length of stay by 1.89 hours (95% confidence interval 1.39 to 2.38). The number needed to test was 2.5 patients and was highest yield on April 1, 2020, when the state positivity rate was 39.7%; however, the number needed to test exceeded 170 patients by Sept 1, 2020, at which point the state positivity rate was 0.5%. CONCLUSION: Although universal SARS-CoV-2 testing of ED admissions may meaningfully support mitigation and containment efforts, the clinical cost of testing all admissions amid low community positivity is notable. In our system, universal ED SARS-CoV-2 testing was associated with a 24% increase in admission length of stay alongside the detection of only 1 positive case every other day. Given the known harms and risks of ED boarding and crowding, solutions must be developed to support regular operational flow while balancing infection prevention needs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
7.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(7): 4134-4147, 2021 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392750

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has made us all think critically about hospital indoor air quality and the approaches to remove, dilute, and disinfect pathogenic organisms from the hospital environment. While specific aspects of the coronavirus infectivity, spread, and routes of transmission are still under rigorous investigation, it seems that a recollection of knowledge from the literature can provide useful lessons to cope with this new situation. As a result, a systematic literature review was conducted on the safety of air filtration and air recirculation in healthcare premises. This review targeted a wide range of evidence from codes and regulations, to peer-reviewed publications, and best practice standards. The literature search resulted in 394 publications, of which 109 documents were included in the final review. Overall, even though solid evidence to support current practice is very scarce, proper filtration remains one important approach to maintain the cleanliness of indoor air in hospitals. Given the rather large physical footprint of the filtration system, a range of short-term and long-term solutions from the literature are collected. Nonetheless, there is a need for a rigorous and feasible line of research in the area of air filtration and recirculation in healthcare facilities. Such efforts can enhance the performance of healthcare facilities under normal conditions or during a pandemic. Past innovations can be adopted for the new outbreak at low-to-minimal cost.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Disease Outbreaks , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Hosp Top ; 100(2): 69-76, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390260

ABSTRACT

The 2019 SARS-CoV2 virus presented a capacity demand scenario for Yale New Haven Hospital. The response was created with a focus on clinical needs, but was also driven by the unique characteristics of the buildings within our institution. These physical characteristics were considered in the response as a safety measure as little was known about the transmissibility risk in the acute hospital setting of SARS-CoV2 at the time of response. The lessons learned in capacity expansion to meet the potentially catastrophic demand for acute care services due to a novel, poorly understood pathogen are discussed here.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitals , Humans , Inpatients , Pandemics/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(5): 625-626, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233675

ABSTRACT

Mass asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplified testing of healthcare personnel (HCP) was performed at a large tertiary health system. A low period-prevalence of positive HCP was observed. Of those who tested positive, half had mild symptoms in retrospect. HCP with even mild symptoms should be isolated and tested.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Connecticut/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
11.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248025, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115309

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers (HCW) treating COVID-19 patients are at high risk for infection and may also spread infection through their contact with vulnerable patients. Smell loss has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but it is unknown whether monitoring for smell loss can be used to identify asymptomatic infection among high risk individuals. In this study we sought to determine if tracking smell sensitivity and loss using an at-home assessment could identify SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCW. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a prospective cohort study tracking 473 HCW across three months to determine if smell loss could predict SARS-CoV-2 infection in this high-risk group. HCW subjects completed a longitudinal, behavioral at-home assessment of olfaction with household items, as well as detailed symptom surveys that included a parosmia screening questionnaire, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction testing to identify SARS-CoV-2 infection. Our main measures were the prevalence of smell loss in SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW versus SARS-CoV-2-negative HCW, and timing of smell loss relative to SARS-CoV-2 test positivity. SARS-CoV-2 was identified in 17 (3.6%) of 473 HCW. HCW with SARS-CoV-2 infection were more likely to report smell loss than SARS-CoV-2-negative HCW on both the at-home assessment and the screening questionnaire (9/17, 53% vs 105/456, 23%, P < .01). 6/9 (67%) of SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW reporting smell loss reported smell loss prior to having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test, and smell loss was reported a median of two days before testing positive. Neurological symptoms were reported more frequently among SARS-CoV-2-positive HCW who reported smell loss compared to those without smell loss (9/9, 100% vs 3/8, 38%, P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: In this prospective study of HCW, self-reported changes in smell using two different measures were predictive of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Smell loss frequently preceded a positive test and was associated with neurological symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Health Personnel/trends , Adult , Anosmia/diagnosis , Anosmia/virology , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Self Report , Smell/physiology , United States/epidemiology
12.
J Nurs Adm ; 51(3): E6-E12, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1078886

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the crucial role and dearth of critical care nurses in the United States highlighted during the COVID-19 pandemic. This challenge of sufficient critical care nursing resources existed before the pandemic, but now concern is heightened by the need for such crucial healthcare providers now and in the future. We present strategies to address the gap, as well as challenges inherent in the suggested approaches. The discussion is relevant as nurse leaders adapt to COVID-19 and other novel challenges in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/nursing , Critical Care Nursing/standards , Critical Care Nursing/trends , Nursing Staff, Hospital/supply & distribution , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Adult , Critical Care Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Female , Forecasting , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
13.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(1): 45-47, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072055

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to global shortages of N95 respirators. Reprocessing of used N95 respirators may provide a higher filtration crisis alternative, but whether effective sterilization can be achieved for a virus without impairing respirator function remains unknown. We evaluated the viricidal efficacy of Bioquell vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) on contaminated N95 respirators and tested the particulate particle penetration and inhalation and exhalation resistance of respirators after multiple cycles of VHP. METHODS: For this study, 3M 1870 N95 respirators were contaminated with 3 aerosolized bacteriophages: T1, T7, and Pseudomonas phage phi-6 followed by 1 cycle of VHP decontamination using a BQ-50 system. Additionally, new and unused respirators were sent to an independent laboratory for particulate filter penetration testing and inhalation and exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP. RESULTS: A single VHP cycle resulted in complete eradication of bacteriophage from respirators (limit of detection 10 PFU). Respirators showed acceptable limits for inhalation/exhalation resistance after 3 and 5 cycles of VHP. Respirators demonstrated a filtration efficiency >99 % after 3 cycles, but filtration efficiency fell below 95% after 5 cycles of HPV. CONCLUSION: Bioquell VHP demonstrated high viricidal activity for N95 respirators inoculated with aerosolized bacteriophages. Bioquell technology can be scaled for simultaneous decontamination of a large number of used but otherwise intact respirators. Reprocessing should be limited to 3 cycles due to concerns both about impact of clinical wear and tear on fit, and to decrement in filtration after 3 cycles.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydrogen Peroxide , Decontamination , Equipment Reuse , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , N95 Respirators , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Build Environ ; 183: 107186, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713897

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of COVID-19, and its current resurgence in the United States has resulted in a shortage of isolation rooms within many U.S. hospitals admitting COVID-19-positive cases. As a result, hospital systems, especially those at an epicenter of this outbreak, have initiated task forces to identify and implement various approaches to increase their isolation capacities. This paper describes an innovative temporary anteroom in addition to a portable air purifier unit to turn a general patient room into an isolation space. Using an aerosolization system with a surrogate oil-based substance, we evaluated the effectiveness of the temporary plastic anteroom and the portable air purifier unit. Moreover, the optimal location of the portable unit, as well as the effect of negative pressurization and door opening on the containment of surrogate aerosols were assessed. Results suggested that the temporary anteroom alone could prevent the migration of nearly 98% of the surrogate aerosols into the adjacent corridor. Also, it was shown that the best location of a single portable air purifier unit is inside the isolation room and near the patient's bed. The outcome of this paper can be widely used by hospital facilities managers when attempting to retrofit a general patient room into an airborne infection isolation room.

17.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(6): 1257-1263, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-71936

ABSTRACT

As health care systems struggle to maintain adequate supplies of personal protective equipment, there is confusion and anxiety among obstetricians and others about how to best protect themselves, their coworkers, and their patients. Although use of personal protective equipment is a critical strategy to protect health care personnel from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), other strategies also need to be implemented on labor and delivery units to reduce the risk of health care-associated transmission, including screening of all pregnant women who present for care (case identification), placing a mask on and rapidly isolating ill pregnant women, and minimizing the number of personnel who enter the room of an ill patient (physical distancing). Although the mechanism of transmission of COVID-19 is not known with certainty, current evidence suggests that COVID-19 is transmitted primarily through respiratory droplets. Therefore, strict adherence to hand hygiene and consistent use of recommended personal protective equipment are cornerstones for reducing transmission. In addition, it is critical that health care professionals receive training on and practice correct donning (putting on) and doffing (removing) of personal protective equipment and avoid touching their faces as well as their facial protection to minimize self-contamination.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel/education , Infection Control/methods , Obstetrics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Female , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
18.
Cell ; 181(5): 990-996.e5, 2020 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-60444

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 was first detected in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States in January 2020, with subsequent COVID-19 outbreaks detected in all 50 states by early March. To uncover the sources of SARS-CoV-2 introductions and patterns of spread within the United States, we sequenced nine viral genomes from early reported COVID-19 patients in Connecticut. Our phylogenetic analysis places the majority of these genomes with viruses sequenced from Washington state. By coupling our genomic data with domestic and international travel patterns, we show that early SARS-CoV-2 transmission in Connecticut was likely driven by domestic introductions. Moreover, the risk of domestic importation to Connecticut exceeded that of international importation by mid-March regardless of our estimated effects of federal travel restrictions. This study provides evidence of widespread sustained transmission of SARS-CoV-2 within the United States and highlights the critical need for local surveillance.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Travel , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Connecticut/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Epidemiological Monitoring , Humans , Likelihood Functions , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Travel/legislation & jurisprudence , United States/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL