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1.
20th LACCEI International Multi-Conference for Engineering, Education Caribbean Conference for Engineering and Technology, LACCEI 2022 ; JOUR, 2022-July.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2091218

ABSTRACT

In this paper, the redesign and construction of a low- cost, open-source, emergency mechanical ventilator prototype is presented, in response to the shortage of mechanical ventilators caused by the COVID-19 pandemic in low- and middle-income countries. This redesign took as its starting point an open-source mechanical ventilator already validated through preclinical testing in a porcine animal model. The objective ofthis work was to improve the previous device, with changes in hardware and software, which resulted in a lower-cost device with greater replicability, maintaining the functional characteristics previously obtained with the base ventilator, verified by means of a mechanical ventilator calibrator. Results show a stable and precise behavior, and with an adequate operating range in accordance with the WHO and MHRA requirements, with a maximum error of 4.97% for pressure and 8.23% for tidal volume measurements. © 2022 Latin American and Caribbean Consortium of Engineering Institutions. All rights reserved.

3.
Revista De Educacion Y Derecho-Educational and Law Review ; JOUR(26)
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2083433

ABSTRACT

The crisis caused by COVID-19 has posed a major challenge for teacher training, with technology being the driving force behind the transformation of the education system. However, the use of this type of resource is influenced by several factors, including personal factors. This research analyses the influence of periods of confinement on the personal factors that condition the process of transfer of continuous training of non-university teachers in the field of application of new information and communication technologies. The sample consisted of 1,826 non-university teachers from the Region of Murcia, selected using the non-probabilistic convenience sampling technique. The data treatment followed a quantitative-correlational. The results show that the internal factors that influence the process of transfer of permanent training in the use of ICT by teachers at non-university levels have been reinforced after the period of confinement. Therefore, the confinement caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has allowed teachers to develop skills after training that have allowed them to adapt to the complexity of the context.

4.
Innovar ; 32(86):151-166, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081098

ABSTRACT

This research seeks to provide an updated view of personal sales in a business-to-business (b2b) environment through the study of ethical sales and their relationship with customer satisfaction, trust, and loyalty to the selling company in an environment where face-to-face contact has been minimized and even annulled, on many occasions due to the new commercial scenario caused by the covid-19 pandemic. This research is based on an empirical study using a convenience sample comprised of customers (smes) of six supplies and industrial sales distributors. One hundred customers were randomly chosen per distributor, resulting in a sample of 600 industrial clients, from which 248 valid questionnaires were received in March 2021. Subsequently, they were analyzed through structural equations. The results show that ethical sales have a positive and direct impact on satisfaction and trust and an indirect effect on loyalty. The study results reveal sellers' critical role in the industrial market and encourage academic and business interest in the efficient sales force management from an ethical perspective. © 2022, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. All rights reserved.

5.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 14(17), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2080485

ABSTRACT

A reverse osmosis system driven by photovoltaic energy is an eco-friendly and sustainable way to produce freshwater in rural areas without connection to a power grid and with available brackish water sources. This paper describes a project where a photovoltaic-driven low-pressure reverse osmosis system (LPRO-PV) was designed, tested under laboratory conditions, and installed in Samalayuca, Chihuahua, Mexico, to evaluate the technical feasibility and social impact of this technology. The LPRO-PV system was tested with synthetic water with a salinity of 2921 ± 62.3 mg/L;the maximum freshwater volume produced was 1.8 ± 0.06 m3/day with a salinity value of 91 ± 1.9 mg/L. The LPRO-PV system satisfied the basic freshwater requirements for a local family of three members for one year, including the mobility-restriction period due to the COVID-19 pandemic. The social evaluation analysis reflects the importance of considering the technical aspects derived from the experimental tests, as well as the users’ perception of the performance and operation of the system. As a result of the implementation of this technology and the benefits described by the users, they committed to the maintenance activities required for the LPRO-PV system’s operation. This technology has great potential to produce fresh water in arid and isolated regions with high-salinity groundwater sources, thus fulfilling the human right to safe and clean drinking water. © 2022 by the authors.

6.
IEEE Latin America Transactions ; 20(11):2354-2362, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078256

ABSTRACT

Fighting against climate change and global warming is one of the biggest challenges faced by the Maritime Industry nowadays to make the supply chain greener and environmentally sustainable. Cutting greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions and decarbonizing the international shipping has been a paramount activity for the International Maritime Organization (IMO) since the first set of international mandatory measures to improve ships' energy efficiency and reduce CO2 emissions per transport work, as part of the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) released in 2011. Besides that, changes in consumption habits around the globe (i.e., digitalization and growth of e-commerce) plus disruptive events like the COVID-19 or the blocking of the Suez Canal, to name only a few, have also highlighted the need for building more resilient maritime transport networks. In this work, a pragmatical analysis of the principal machine learning algorithms has been carried out to provide a qualitative prediction of the Estimate Time of Arrival (ETA) of container vessels applied to short-sea shipping where the distance between ports is reduced. By exploiting both, the Automatic Identification System (AIS) and meteorological data gathered over a desired area of interest, the developed approach delivers a model capable of predicting the ETA of ships where the reaction time of the stakeholders involved in the management of the Port Call is very reduced (i.e., less than two hours of sailing between ports) and therefore, tolerance for error is low. Very positive results were obtained for the training dataset collected under real conditions for more than a year. The best results were obtained by the RF model with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 11.31 and 19.56 minutes respectively. © 2003-2012 IEEE.

7.
European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists ; 65(Suppl 1):S628-S628, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2073423

ABSTRACT

Introduction Intensive home-treatment (IHT) for people experiencing a mental health crisis has been progressively established in many European countries as an alternative to in-ward treatment. However, the management of acute episodes at home can cause burden in the caregivers of these patients. Objectives To create a brief group intervention (BGI) to reduce burden in the caregivers of the patients admitted to an IHT unit. Methods A preliminary version of the BGI (BGI 1.0) was designed based on literature’s review. It consisted of 4 sessions of 90 minutes (one per week), on-line (COVID-19), focused on caregivers burden, stress and self-care, communication skills, and self-compassion. All the caregivers of the patients admitted for IHT from 10/01/2020 to 06/01/2021 were offered the BGI 1.0. At the end of the intervention, participants (caregivers and therapists) were asked about their opinion on its contents and usefulness. Results A total of 31 caregivers received the BGI 1.0. Most of them felt satisfied with the intervention. Opinions varied as to which contents should be expanded or included. The therapists thought that the number of sessions should be increased to take a closer look at some contents or to include new ones. They also believed that the on-line format hindered the adherence and the interaction between the participants. Conclusions The BGI 1.0 seems to be a good starting point to design the final version of the intervention. However, an exhaustive assessment of the construct of burden in a larger sample of caregivers should be performed prior to its design. Disclosure No significant relationships.

8.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report ; 71(35):1109-1114, 2022.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2073379

ABSTRACT

What is already known on this topic? In June 2022, COVID-19 vaccines were authorized for use in children aged 6 months-5 years. Intent to vaccinate and vaccination rates in children have been low. What is added by this report? During July 2021-May 2022, in a longitudinal cohort of 393 children aged <5 years in four states, parental intent to vaccinate children against COVID-19 and perception of COVID-19 vaccine safety and effectiveness declined over a 3-month period, but intent to vaccinate and perceptions of vaccine safety returned to baseline after 6 months. What are the implications for public health practice? Identifying and addressing barriers to COVID-19 vaccination in children aged <5 years and educating parents about COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness and safety in young children are critical to increasing pediatric COVID-19 vaccination coverage.

10.
Colombian Journal of Anesthesiology ; 50(4) (no pagination), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2067057

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) depends on the amount of energy per minute transferred by the ventilator to the lung measured in Joules, which is called mechanical power. Mechanical power is a development variable probably associated with outcomes in ventilated patients. Objective(s): To describe the value of mechanical power in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and ventilated for other causes and its relationship between days of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), and mortality. Method(s): A multicenter, analytical, observational cohort study was conducted in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection who required invasive mechanical ventilation and patients ventilated for other causes for more than 24 hours. Result(s): The cohort included 91 patients on mechanical ventilation in three tertiary care centers in the city of Pereira, Colombia. The average value of the mechanical power found was 22.7 +/- 1 Joules/min. In the subgroup of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the value of mechanical power was higher 26.8 +/- 9 than in the subgroup of patients without a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection 18.2 +/- 1 (p <0.001). Conclusion(s): Mechanical power is an important variable to consider during the monitoring of mechanical ventilation. This study found an average value of mechanical power of 22.7 +/- 1 Joules/min, being higher in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection related to longer days of mechanical ventilation and a longer stay in the ICU. Copyright © 2022 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.

11.
Semergen ; 48(8): 101840, 2022 Sep 13.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061862

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Obesity is considered a risk factor in severe cases of COVID-19, which has been analysed using body mass index (BMI), an estimator that does not correlate adequately with body fat (BF) percentage. The aim of this study was to analyse the population attributable fraction to BF in severe forms of COVID-19 based on BMI and CUN-BAE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Multicentre observational prevalence study. Sociodemographic information, personal history, BMI and CUN-BAE were collected in SARS-CoV-2 positive cases from the provinces of León and La Rioja. Logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios with their respective 95% confidence intervals adjusting for age and personal history, as well as the population attributable fraction to BF. RESULTS: Seven hundred eighty-five patients participated, 123 (15.7%) were severe. Age, obesity (both by BMI and CUN-BAE) and personal history were detected as risk factors. 51.6% of severe cases could be attributed to excess BMI and 61.4% to excess BF estimated according to CUN-BAE, with a higher underestimation of risk in women. CONCLUSIONS: Excess BF is a risk factor for severe forms of COVID-19 together with advanced age and the presence of cardiovascular, chronic respiratory or oncohematological diseases. BMI underestimates the risk especially in women, being CUN-BAE the predictor selected for its better estimation of the percentage of BF.

12.
International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction ; : 1-18, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2058610

ABSTRACT

Women are more likely to use alcohol as a coping strategy for psychological distress, with higher rates of comorbidity with depression being found in those with an alcohol use disorder. The objective of this study was to analyze changes in problematic alcohol consumption and depression during the COVID-19 lockdown, and to establish a predictive model based on age. A total of 1889 women aged 18–64 years (M = 36.14) participated. The Patient Health Questionnaire was applied for depression, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–Short Version for alcohol, and active and avoidant coping were considered. In the period prior to the pandemic, depression and avoidant coping were good predictors of alcohol consumption in women, regardless of age. During lockdown, this predictive capacity was only maintained in women aged 35–64 years. In the mediational models, differences were observed according to age. For women aged 18–34 years, depression was the predictor variable of problematic alcohol consumption, but for women aged 35–64 years it was the avoidant coping style, which is the predominant style in women of this age with clinical depression. The relevance of age in the combined treatments of depression and problematic alcohol consumption is highlighted, and training in active coping strategies is suggested.

13.
European psychiatry : the journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists ; 64(Suppl 1):S343-S343, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046038

ABSTRACT

Introduction Concerns have been raised about ecological momentary assessment (EMA) acceptability among patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), which is of major relevance during the e-Mental health-focused COVID-19 pandemic. Objectives To investigate i) the levels of adherence to a passive smartphone-based EMA tool, the Evidence-Based Behavior (eB2), among SSD patients;and ii) putative predictors of this. Methods Sample: SSD (F20-29-ICD10) outpatients, age 18-64, without financial incentives, recruited over 17/06/2019-11/03/2020 at the Hospital Universitario Fundación Jiménez Díaz (Madrid, Spain). Those who accepted the eB2 installation -users- and those who did not -non-users- were compared in sociodemographic, clinical, premorbid adjustment, neurocognitive, psychopathological, insight and metacognitive variables by a multivariable binary logistic regression model. Results Sample (N=77): n=41 males;age: 47.69±9.76 years, n=24 users (31.2%). n=14 users (70%) had the eB2 installed at follow-up (median=14.50 weeks).Multivariable binary logistic regression model on ‘user’ as outcomeβSEWaldpOR95% CIAge-0.0750.0383.9100.0480.9280.861-0.999Education level-0.9671.2890.5630.4530.3800.030-4.755Early adolescence premorbid adjustment-0.2850.1106.6950.0100.7520.606-0.933Trail Making Test A-0.0300.0251.4880.2220.9700.924-1.018Trail Making Test B-0.0050.0100.2780.5980.9950.976-1.014Cognitive Insight0.0620.0611.0430.3071.0640.944-1.200 X2=25.296,df=6,p<0.001. Nagelkerke-R2=44.7%. Correctly classified: 76.9%, users:54.5%, non-users:88.4%. Conclusions Acceptability of a smartphone-based EMA application among SSD patients was low. Age (young) and good premorbid adjustment predicted acceptability. e-Mental Health methods need to be tailored for patients with SSD. Otherwise, these highly vulnerable individuals may be neglected by e-health-based services in the post-COVID-19 years ahead.

14.
Transplantation ; 106(8):180, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2040840

ABSTRACT

Background: Two million adults and children die each year of liver disease. Liver transplantation (LT) is the second most common solid organ transplantation, however, less than 10% of global transplantation needs are achieved. Low- and Middle-income Countries (LMIC's) are the most affected. A University based Center for Global Surgery and our LT team, started collaborations with counterparts in LMIC's over a decade ago and joined efforts in 2017 to create an international alliance that allows clinical care, education and research endeavors. We aim to describe our experience establishing a LT mentoring group within an academic Center for Global Surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective observational study. We evaluated the number of clinical, research and educational activities that our program did in collaboration with LMIC's for more than a decade (2009 -2022).Surgeries, patient evaluation and follow-up were done in a multidisciplinary fashion with protocols and guidelines from our LT program in partnership with LMIC's LT teams and via telehealth. Most educational and research activities were done online. Results: We performed 15 surgeries in pediatric and adult patients, including cadaveric and living donor LT, portosystemic shunts and resections and evaluated 27 patients from LMIC's. We published 1 article, presented 5 s and obtained 1 grant. Our group received support to sponsor one research scholar per year and we had 15 bilateral exchange visits and organized 27 online multidisciplinary education sessions in collaboration with centers from LMIC'S. Conclusions: Our data shows that global efforts with a multidisciplinary model supported by international societies can have clinical and academic impact. It is feasible to partner and mentor the academic and clinical development of LT programs in LMIC's through telehealth and exchange programs. Funding of these efforts remains challenging, and COVID-19 has limited academic and clinical activities.

16.
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology ; 65, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2022147

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has spread widely through the world, since 2019. Then, the search for vaccines has become fundamental against the disease and has generated great expectations on population. In Brazil, the first case of COVID-19 was registered in February 2020 and the process of vaccination started in early 2021. In this context, considering the advance of vaccination and the behavior of epidemics, we present a study on the effect of population-wide vaccination on the evolution of the COVID-19 epidemic. To this end, we propose a new fuzzy system in order to model the COVID-19 epidemic evolution under the effect of vaccination in Brazil. This proposed model consists of a p-fuzzy system, where the input variables are the infected population and the vaccination rate. The output variable is the level of infection. Results of the proposed fuzzy system show that the level of infestation tends to decrease as the number of people vaccinated increases. Therefore, the population-wide vaccination strategy clearly contributes to suppressing the growth of the disease and to mitigating its impacts on society, including saving lives.

18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(18)2022 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2010121

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is a new coronavirus characterized by a high infection and transmission capacity. A significant number of patients develop inadequate immune responses that produce massive releases of cytokines that compromise their survival. Soluble factors are clinically and pathologically relevant in COVID-19 survival but remain only partially characterized. The objective of this work was to simultaneously study 62 circulating soluble factors, including innate and adaptive cytokines and their soluble receptors, chemokines and growth and wound-healing/repair factors, in severe COVID-19 patients who survived compared to those with fatal outcomes. Serum samples were obtained from 286 COVID-19 patients and 40 healthy controls. The 62 circulating soluble factors were quantified using a Luminex Milliplex assay. Results. The patients who survived had decreased levels of the following 30 soluble factors of the 62 studied compared to those with fatal outcomes, therefore, these decreases were observed for cytokines and receptors predominantly produced by the innate immune system-IL-1α, IL-1α, IL-18, IL-15, IL-12p40, IL-6, IL-27, IL-1Ra, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, TNFα, TGFα, IL-10, sRAGE, sTNF-RI and sTNF-RII-for the chemokines IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIG and fractalkine; for the growth factors M-CSF and the soluble receptor sIL2Ra; for the cytokines involved in the adaptive immune system IFNγ, IL-17 and sIL-4R; and for the wound-repair factor FGF2. On the other hand, the patients who survived had elevated levels of the soluble factors TNFß, sCD40L, MDC, RANTES, G-CSF, GM-CSF, EGF, PDGFAA and PDGFABBB compared to those who died. Conclusions. Increases in the circulating levels of the sCD40L cytokine; MDC and RANTES chemokines; the G-CSF and GM-CSF growth factors, EGF, PDGFAA and PDGFABBB; and tissue-repair factors are strongly associated with survival. By contrast, large increases in IL-15, IL-6, IL-18, IL-27 and IL-10; the sIL-1RI, sIL1RII and sTNF-RII receptors; the MCP3, IL-8, MIG and IP-10 chemokines; the M-CSF and sIL-2Ra growth factors; and the wound-healing factor FGF2 favor fatal outcomes of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-27 , Chemokine CCL5 , Chemokine CX3CL1 , Chemokine CXCL10 , Cytokines , Epidermal Growth Factor , Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 , Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Humans , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 Subunit p40 , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-8 , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , SARS-CoV-2 , Transforming Growth Factor alpha , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
19.
Cirugia Cardiovascular ; 29(4):258, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Es | ID: covidwho-2003932

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia COVID-19 ha podido tener influencia en la incidencia de endocarditis infecciosa nosocomial (EIN). Objetivos: Describir la incidencia, características y evolución de la EIN durante la pandemia COVID-19. Material y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo unicéntrico incluyendo las EIN definidas, según los criterios de Duke, desde marzo 2020 hasta marzo 2021. Se dividieron a los pacientes en ingreso por COVID-19 (grupo COVID) o por otros motivos (grupo no COVID). Se comparó la incidencia de EIN con el mismo periodo de 2019-2020. Resultados: Durante el periodo de estudio se diagnosticaron 22 EIN, 7 (31,8%) en COVID, 15 (68,2%) en no COVID. La incidencia fue 9,7 casos/10.000 ingresos (22/22.596). La incidencia en el mismo periodo 2019-2020 fue 4,6/10.000 (10/21.668), siendo la diferencia significativa (OR 1,91, IC95% 1,03-3,96, p = 0,038). Durante el periodo 2020-2021, la incidencia de EIN en COVID fue 24,6/10.000 (7/2.846) frente a 7,5/10.000 (15/19.750) en no COVID, siendo la diferencia significativa (OR 3,23 IC95% 1,32-7,95, p < 0,001). La mediana de edad fue 75 años (RIQ 68-80), siendo varones 68,2%. La mediana de Índice de Charlson fue 5 (RIQ 4-6). Un 36,4% presentaban válvula protésica, mientras un 22,7% valvulopatías significativa no protésica. Los pacientes COVID habían recibido más frecuentemente inmunosupresores (71,4% vs. 13,3%, p = 0,014), sin otras diferencias entre grupos. El foco primario fue considerado vascular en 86,4% (19/22;10 por vía periférica (VP), 5 por catéter venoso central (CVC), 4 no se pudo diferenciar origen entre VP o CVC). 3 pacientes presentaron foco no vascular (1 genitourinario, 2 gastrointestinal). No hubo diferencias entre grupos. Las manifestaciones fueron: fiebre 95,5%;insuficiencia cardiaca 68,2%;embolismos 45,5%;ictus 40,9%;insuficiencia renal 40,9%;bacteriemia persistente 38,1%;y shock séptico 14,3%. Los pacientes no COVID presentaron con más frecuencia clínica subaguda (0 vs. 46,7%, p = 0,042), sin otras diferencias estadísticamente significativas. La etiología fue: estafilococos coagulasa negativo 6 (27,3%);Enterococcus faecalis 6 (27,3%);Staphylococcus aureus 4 (18,2%);Candida albicans 3 (13,6%). En 3 casos no hubo aislamiento microbiológico (13.6%). No hubo diferencias entre grupos. La mortalidad a 30 días fue 45,5%, siendo la EIN o sus complicaciones la causa en todos los casos salvo 1 (no COVID). No hubo diferencias de mortalidad entre grupos (28,6% vs. 53,3%, p = 0,381). Conclusiones: La incidencia de EIN ha aumentado durante la pandemia, especialmente en pacientes ingresados por COVID-19. El foco primario de las EIN fue predominantemente vascular. Afectaron frecuentemente a pacientes con comorbilidad y patología valvular previa. Las manifestaciones, etiología y evolución fueron similares en COVID y no COVID, destacando una elevada frecuencia de eventos embólicos, especialmente ictus. Las EIN asocian elevada morbimortalidad y es importante extremar las medidas de prevención.

20.
Cytotherapy ; 24(5):S111-S112, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1996727

ABSTRACT

Background & Aim: The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The vaccines had dramatically decreased infection rates, number of deaths, and hospitalizations, but they are not 100% effective and immunity is lost gradually over time. We have previously shown how we are able to detect, isolate and produce at clinical scale SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells within CD45RA-memory T cells from COVID-19 convalescent donors. In a phase I clinical trial we have proved that treatment with these cells of hospitalized patients with moderate/severe COVID-19 is safe and feasible. Understanding the durability and the level of cellular immunity within the CD45RA- memory T cells and how changes with immunization are critical for the development of a biobank of living drugs to treat future COVID-19 patients. We performed a longitudinal exploratory analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 specific humoral and cellular immunity within the memory CD45RA- T cells in naive and previously infected individuals at different time points after two doses of BNT162b2 BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine Methods, Results & Conclusion: We studied the cellular and humoral response of SARS-CoV-2 specific memory T cells from recovered patients and controls at different time points: 2 weeks after recovering from COVID-19, 9 months after the infection/just before mRNA immunization, 10 and 65 days after full immunization. Detection of SARSCoV- 2- Specific Memory T Cells was performed by IFNg assay after exposure of cells to the M, N, and S SARS-CoV-2 peptides. Our data shows that memory T cell responses within the CD45RA- memory T cell subpopulation and most of the subsets tend to be higher in recovered individuals at all time points. The cellular response produced by control individuals to the S peptide is like the one from recovered patients at the same time point. Humoral responses were higher in recovered individuals after full immunization. Antibodies titer was not boosted after the late vaccine time point. An exploratory analysis of non-parametric Spearman’s rho correlation of humoral and cellular responses shows a positive correlation after infection with the 3 peptides and 65 days after immunization. In conclusion: We have analyzed the SARS-COV-2 specific T cells within the CD45RA- memory T cell subpopulation and the different subsets at different time points after (Figure Presented) (Figure Presented) infection and fully vaccinated. We claim that the best donors would be immunized individuals recovered from COVID-19 ideally in a time frame not higher than 6 months.

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