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1.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):94, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880132

ABSTRACT

Background: It is imperative to investigate novel, broadly conserved coronavirus immunogens as new SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern are continually emerging. The goal of this study was to generate a broadly protective long-term vaccine candidate against potential new variants of SARS-CoV-2 and novel, outbreak coronaviruses. The vaccine immunogen spanned portions of the highly conserved RNA replication machinery (nsp12 and nsp13) (CoV.Con). The vaccine was packaged into a rhesus adenoviral vector (RhAd52.CoV.Con) with the goal of generating robust long-lived CD8+ T-cell responses. Methods: The CoV.Con immunogen was generated by aligning coronavirus sequences to determine the most conserved region. ACE2 carrier and BALB/c mice were immunized intramuscularly with 109 RhAd52.CoV.Con and boosted four weeks later. Splenocytes were harvested four weeks after boost. Cellular immunity was determined through ELIspot and intracellular cytokine stain (ICS). BALB/c mice were primed and boosted with RhAd52.CoV.Con. Four weeks post boost mice were challenged intranasally with mouse adapted SARS-CoV-2. Protection was measured by weight loss and plaque assay. Results: Four weeks post RhAd52.CoV.Con boost immunization, ACE2 carrier and BALB/c mice developed cellular immunity as shown by ELIspot (Fig 1a) and ICS. ACE2 carrier mice cellular immunity showed bias toward nsp12 while BALB/c mice showed nsp13 preference. BALB/c mice were primed and boosted with RhAd52.CoV.Con. Four weeks after boost mice were challenged with mouse adapted SARS-CoV-2. RhAd52.CoV.Con was compared against and combined with a suboptimal dose of RhAd52.S.pp at 4 and 8 weeks post injection. Protection against weight loss (Fig 1b) and viral load (Fig 1c) was minimal although increased RhAd52.S.pp protection was observed from 4 to 8 weeks post immunization. Increased RhAd52.S.pp protection corresponded to increased spike antibody binding and neutralizing titers. Conclusion: Our work investigates a highly conserved coronavirus immunogen, CoV.Con, demonstrating immunogenicity in two mouse strains. While RhAd52. CoV.Con protection in the mouse model was minimal it demonstrates a schema for generating coronavirus immunogens that can protect against multiple different viruses. This work takes the first steps towards generating a long-lived broadly protective T-cell coronavirus vaccine.

2.
PubMed; 2022.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-338334

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases have shaped the human population genetic structure, and genetic variation influences the susceptibility to many viral diseases. However, a variety of challenges have made the implementation of traditional human Genome-wide Association Studies (GWAS) approaches to study these infectious outcomes challenging. In contrast, mouse models of infectious diseases provide an experimental control and precision, which facilitates analyses and mechanistic studies of the role of genetic variation on infection. Here we use a genetic mapping cross between two distinct Collaborative Cross mouse strains with respect to SARS-CoV disease outcomes. We find several loci control differential disease outcome for a variety of traits in the context of SARS-CoV infection. Importantly, we identify a locus on mouse Chromosome 9 that shows conserved synteny with a human GWAS locus for SARS-CoV-2 severe disease. We follow-up and confirm a role for this locus, and identify two candidate genes, CCR9 and CXCR6 that both play a key role in regulating the severity of SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and a distantly related bat sarbecovirus disease outcomes. As such we provide a template for using experimental mouse crosses to identify and characterize multitrait loci that regulate pathogenic infectious outcomes across species.

3.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-334706

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic remains uncontrolled despite the rapid rollout of safe and effective SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, underscoring the need to develop highly effective antivirals. In the setting of waning immunity from infection and vaccination, breakthrough infections are becoming increasingly common and treatment options remain limited. Additionally, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern with their potential to escape therapeutic monoclonal antibodies emphasizes the need to develop second-generation oral antivirals targeting highly conserved viral proteins that can be rapidly deployed to outpatients. Here, we demonstrate the in vitro antiviral activity and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of GS-621763, an orally bioavailable prodrug of GS-441524, the parental nucleoside of remdesivir, which targets the highly conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. GS-621763 exhibited significant antiviral activity in lung cell lines and two different human primary lung cell culture systems. The dose-proportional pharmacokinetic profile observed after oral administration of GS-621763 translated to dose-dependent antiviral activity in mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therapeutic GS-621763 significantly reduced viral load, lung pathology, and improved pulmonary function in COVID-19 mouse model. A direct comparison of GS-621763 with molnupiravir, an oral nucleoside analog antiviral currently in human clinical trial, proved both drugs to be similarly efficacious. These data demonstrate that therapy with oral prodrugs of remdesivir can significantly improve outcomes in SARS-CoV-2 infected mice. Thus, GS-621763 supports the exploration of GS-441524 oral prodrugs for the treatment of COVID-19 in humans.

4.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333816

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has sparked intense interest in the rapid development of vaccines as well as animal models to evaluate vaccine candidates and to define immune correlates of protection. We recently reported a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 virus strain (MA10) with the potential to infect wild-type laboratory mice, driving high levels of viral replication in respiratory tract tissues as well as severe clinical and respiratory symptoms, aspects of COVID-19 disease in humans that are important to capture in model systems. We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of novel rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 (RhAd52) vaccines against MA10 challenge in mice. Baseline seroprevalence is lower for rhesus adenovirus vectors than for human or chimpanzee adenovirus vectors, making these vectors attractive candidates for vaccine development. We observed that RhAd52 vaccines elicited robust binding and neutralizing antibody titers, which inversely correlated with viral replication after challenge. These data support the development of RhAd52 vaccines and the use of the MA10 challenge virus to screen novel vaccine candidates and to study the immunologic mechanisms that underscore protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge in wild-type mice. IMPORTANCE: We have developed a series of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines using rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 (RhAd52) vectors, which exhibits a lower seroprevalence than human and chimpanzee vectors, supporting their development as novel vaccine vectors or as an alternative Ad vector for boosting. We sought to test these vaccines using a recently reported mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 (MA10) virus to i) evaluate the protective efficacy of RhAd52 vaccines and ii) further characterize this mouse-adapted challenge model and probe immune correlates of protection. We demonstrate RhAd52 vaccines elicit robust SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses and protect against clinical disease and viral replication in the lungs. Further, binding and neutralizing antibody titers correlated with protective efficacy. These data validate the MA10 mouse model as a useful tool to screen and study novel vaccine candidates, as well as the development of RhAd52 vaccines for COVID-19.

5.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333686

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now caused over 2 million deaths worldwide and continues to expand. Currently, much is unknown about functionally neutralizing human antibody responses and durability to SARS-CoV-2. Using convalescent sera collected from 101 COVID-19 recovered individuals 21-212 days after symptom onset with forty-eight additional longitudinal samples, we measured functionality and durability of serum antibodies. We also evaluated associations between individual demographic and clinical parameters with functional neutralizing antibody responses to COVID-19. We found robust antibody durability out to six months, as well as significant positive associations with the magnitude of the neutralizing antibody response and male sex. We also show that SARS-CoV-2 convalescent neutralizing antibodies are higher in individuals with cardio-metabolic comorbidities. SIGNIFICANCE: In this study we found that neutralizing antibody responses in COVID-19 convalescent individuals vary in magnitude but are durable and correlate well with RBD Ig binding antibody levels compared to other SARS-CoV-2 antigen responses. In our cohort, higher neutralizing antibody titers are independently and significantly associated with male sex compared to female sex. We also show for the first time, that higher convalescent antibody titers in male donors are associated with increased age and symptom grade. Furthermore, cardio-metabolic co-morbidities are associated with higher antibody titers independently of sex. Here, we present an in-depth evaluation of serologic, demographic, and clinical correlates of functional antibody responses and durability to SARS-CoV-2.

6.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-326687

ABSTRACT

The emergence of current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) and potential future spillovers of SARS-like coronaviruses into humans pose a major threat to human health and the global economy 1-7 . Development of broadly effective coronavirus vaccines that can mitigate these threats is needed 8, 9 . Notably, several recent studies have revealed that vaccination of recovered COVID-19 donors results in enhanced nAb responses compared to SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination alone 10-13 . Here, we utilized a targeted donor selection strategy to isolate a large panel of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to sarbecoviruses from two such donors. Many of the bnAbs are remarkably effective in neutralization against sarbecoviruses that use ACE2 for viral entry and a substantial fraction also show notable binding to non-ACE2-using sarbecoviruses. The bnAbs are equally effective against most SARS-CoV-2 VOCs and many neutralize the Omicron variant. Neutralization breadth is achieved by bnAb binding to epitopes on a relatively conserved face of the receptor binding domain (RBD) as opposed to strain-specific nAbs to the receptor binding site that are commonly elicited in SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination 14-18 . Consistent with targeting of conserved sites, select RBD bnAbs exhibited in vivo protective efficacy against diverse SARS-like coronaviruses in a prophylaxis challenge model. The generation of a large panel of potent bnAbs provides new opportunities and choices for next-generation antibody prophylactic and therapeutic applications and, importantly, provides a molecular basis for effective design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.

7.
Tecciencia ; 16(30):35-50, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1579607

ABSTRACT

Objetive The purpose of this article is to present a prediction on the epidemiological behavior of the COVID-19 virus for the city of Bogota, Colombia and determine the possible incidence of the different restriction measures. Material and Methods: a dynamic model based on state information was built for all the analysis variables in the framework of a SEIR model. Results and Conclusions: it was determined that the incidence of effective isolation measures significantly affects the behavior of the disease. Results are presented for two different scenarios, with their respective sensitivity analysis using the Monte Carlo method. It is concluded that it is necessary to increase testing and reduce the time needed to get the results. It is also crucial to generate and deploy social policies that make the fulfilment of an effective quarantine possible. Finally, the restrictions of the model for decision-making in terms of public policy are shown.

8.
16 de Abril ; 60(279), 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1498766

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 constitutes a public health emergency of international importance;a number of behaviors have been identified that can prevent the disease and so far, the solution is given by the implementation of behaviors and changes in peo- ple's lifestyles.

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