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1.
Nat Immunol ; 23(6): 960-970, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873528

ABSTRACT

The emergence of current severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOCs) and potential future spillovers of SARS-like coronaviruses into humans pose a major threat to human health and the global economy. Development of broadly effective coronavirus vaccines that can mitigate these threats is needed. Here, we utilized a targeted donor selection strategy to isolate a large panel of human broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) to sarbecoviruses. Many of these bnAbs are remarkably effective in neutralizing a diversity of sarbecoviruses and against most SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, including the Omicron variant. Neutralization breadth is achieved by bnAb binding to epitopes on a relatively conserved face of the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Consistent with targeting of conserved sites, select RBD bnAbs exhibited protective efficacy against diverse SARS-like coronaviruses in a prophylaxis challenge model in vivo. These bnAbs provide new opportunities and choices for next-generation antibody prophylactic and therapeutic applications and provide a molecular basis for effective design of pan-sarbecovirus vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(643): eabm3410, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1752762

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains uncontrolled despite the rapid rollout of safe and effective severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines, underscoring the need to develop highly effective antivirals. In the setting of waning immunity from infection and vaccination, breakthrough infections are becoming increasingly common and treatment options remain limited. In addition, the emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, with their potential to escape neutralization by therapeutic monoclonal antibodies, emphasizes the need to develop second-generation oral antivirals targeting highly conserved viral proteins that can be rapidly deployed to outpatients. Here, we demonstrate the in vitro antiviral activity and in vivo therapeutic efficacy of GS-621763, an orally bioavailable prodrug of GS-441524, the parent nucleoside of remdesivir, which targets the highly conserved virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. GS-621763 exhibited antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2 in lung cell lines and two different human primary lung cell culture systems. GS-621763 was also potently antiviral against a genetically unrelated emerging coronavirus, Middle East respiratory syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). The dose-proportional pharmacokinetic profile observed after oral administration of GS-621763 translated to dose-dependent antiviral activity in mice infected with SARS-CoV-2. Therapeutic GS-621763 administration reduced viral load and lung pathology; treatment also improved pulmonary function in COVID-19 mouse model. A direct comparison of GS-621763 with molnupiravir, an oral nucleoside analog antiviral that has recently received EUA approval, proved both drugs to be similarly efficacious in mice. These data support the exploration of GS-441524 oral prodrugs for the treatment of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections , Prodrugs , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Mice , Nucleosides , Parents , Prodrugs/pharmacology , Prodrugs/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Nat Immunol ; 23(3): 349-351, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1747202
4.
Science ; 373(6556)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1559379

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that are resistant to therapeutic antibodies highlights the need for continuing discovery of broadly reactive antibodies. We identified four receptor binding domain-targeting antibodies from three early-outbreak convalescent donors with potent neutralizing activity against 23 variants, including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429, B.1.526, and B.1.617 VOCs. Two antibodies are ultrapotent, with subnanomolar neutralization titers [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.3 to 11.1 nanograms per milliliter; IC80 1.5 to 34.5 nanograms per milliliter). We define the structural and functional determinants of binding for all four VOC-targeting antibodies and show that combinations of two antibodies decrease the in vitro generation of escape mutants, suggesting their potential in mitigating resistance development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
7.
Nature ; 601(7893): 410-414, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521758

ABSTRACT

The CVnCoV (CureVac) mRNA vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) was recently evaluated in a phase 2b/3 efficacy trial in humans1. CV2CoV is a second-generation mRNA vaccine containing non-modified nucleosides but with optimized non-coding regions and enhanced antigen expression. Here we report the results of a head-to-head comparison of the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of CVnCoV and CV2CoV in non-human primates. We immunized 18 cynomolgus macaques with two doses of 12 µg lipid nanoparticle-formulated CVnCoV or CV2CoV or with sham (n = 6 per group). Compared with CVnCoV, CV2CoV induced substantially higher titres of binding and neutralizing antibodies, memory B cell responses and T cell responses as well as more potent neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the Delta variant. Moreover, CV2CoV was found to be comparably immunogenic to the BNT162b2 (Pfizer) vaccine in macaques. Although CVnCoV provided partial protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge, CV2CoV afforded more robust protection with markedly lower viral loads in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Binding and neutralizing antibody titres were correlated with protective efficacy. These data demonstrate that optimization of non-coding regions can greatly improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a non-modified mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in non-human primates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Nucleosides/chemistry , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Female , Macaca fascicularis/immunology , Male , Nucleosides/genetics , Respiratory System/immunology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/standards , Viral Load , /standards
8.
Cell ; 184(21): 5432-5447.e16, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454060

ABSTRACT

Understanding vaccine-elicited protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants and other sarbecoviruses is key for guiding public health policies. We show that a clinical stage multivalent SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain nanoparticle (RBD-NP) vaccine protects mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge after a single immunization, indicating a potential dose-sparing strategy. We benchmarked serum neutralizing activity elicited by RBD-NPs in non-human primates against a lead prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike (HexaPro) using a panel of circulating mutants. Polyclonal antibodies elicited by both vaccines are similarly resilient to many RBD residue substitutions tested, although mutations at and surrounding position 484 have negative consequences for neutralization. Mosaic and cocktail nanoparticle immunogens displaying multiple sarbecovirus RBDs elicit broad neutralizing activity in mice and protect mice against SARS-CoV challenge even in the absence of SARS-CoV RBD in the vaccine. This study provides proof of principle that multivalent sarbecovirus RBD-NPs induce heterotypic protection and motivates advancing such broadly protective sarbecovirus vaccines to the clinic.

9.
J Virol ; 95(23): e0097421, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410203

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has sparked intense interest in the rapid development of vaccines as well as animal models to evaluate vaccine candidates and to define immune correlates of protection. We recently reported a mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 virus strain (MA10) with the potential to infect wild-type laboratory mice, driving high levels of viral replication in respiratory tract tissues as well as severe clinical and respiratory symptoms, aspects of COVID-19 disease in humans that are important to capture in model systems. We evaluated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of novel rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 (RhAd52) vaccines against MA10 challenge in mice. Baseline seroprevalence is lower for rhesus adenovirus vectors than for human or chimpanzee adenovirus vectors, making these vectors attractive candidates for vaccine development. We observed that RhAd52 vaccines elicited robust binding and neutralizing antibody titers, which inversely correlated with viral replication after challenge. These data support the development of RhAd52 vaccines and the use of the MA10 challenge virus to screen novel vaccine candidates and to study the immunologic mechanisms that underscore protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge in wild-type mice. IMPORTANCE We have developed a series of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines using rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 (RhAd52) vectors, which exhibit a lower seroprevalence than human and chimpanzee vectors, supporting their development as novel vaccine vectors or as an alternative adenovirus (Ad) vector for boosting. We sought to test these vaccines using a recently reported mouse-adapted SARS-CoV-2 (MA10) virus to (i) evaluate the protective efficacy of RhAd52 vaccines and (ii) further characterize this mouse-adapted challenge model and probe immune correlates of protection. We demonstrate that RhAd52 vaccines elicit robust SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses and protect against clinical disease and viral replication in the lungs. Further, binding and neutralizing antibody titers correlated with protective efficacy. These data validate the MA10 mouse model as a useful tool to screen and study novel vaccine candidates, as well as the development of RhAd52 vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Adenovirus Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adenoviridae Infections/immunology , Adenoviruses, Simian/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Macaca mulatta/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination
10.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0027521, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371850

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has now caused over 2 million deaths worldwide and continues to expand. Currently, much is unknown about functionally neutralizing human antibody responses and durability to SARS-CoV-2 months after infection or the reason for the discrepancy in COVID-19 disease and sex. Using convalescent-phase sera collected from 101 COVID-19-recovered individuals 21 to 212 days after symptom onset with 48 additional longitudinal samples, we measured functionality and durability of serum antibodies. We also evaluated associations of individual demographic and clinical parameters with functional neutralizing antibody responses to COVID-19. We found robust antibody durability out to 6 months, as well as significant positive associations with the magnitude of the neutralizing antibody response and male sex and in individuals with cardiometabolic comorbidities. IMPORTANCE In this study, we found that neutralizing antibody responses in COVID-19-convalescent individuals vary in magnitude but are durable and correlate well with receptor binding domain (RBD) Ig binding antibody levels compared to other SARS-CoV-2 antigen responses. In our cohort, higher neutralizing antibody titers are independently and significantly associated with male sex compared to female sex. We also show for the first time that higher convalescent antibody titers in male donors are associated with increased age and symptom grade. Furthermore, cardiometabolic comorbidities are associated with higher antibody titers independently of sex. Here, we present an in-depth evaluation of serologic, demographic, and clinical correlates of functional antibody responses and durability to SARS-CoV-2 which supports the growing literature on sex discrepancies regarding COVID-19 disease morbidity and mortality, as well as functional neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
11.
Cell Rep ; 36(4): 109450, 2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1306890

ABSTRACT

Improving clinical care for individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants is a global health priority. Small-molecule antivirals like remdesivir (RDV) and biologics such as human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is not known whether combination RDV/mAb will improve outcomes over single-agent therapies or whether antibody therapies will remain efficacious against variants. Here, we show that a combination of two mAbs in clinical trials, C144 and C135, have potent antiviral effects against even when initiated 48 h after infection and have therapeutic efficacy in vivo against the B.1.351 variant of concern (VOC). Combining RDV and antibodies provided a modest improvement in outcomes compared with single agents. These data support the continued use of RDV to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections and the continued clinical development of the C144 and C135 antibody combination to treat patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
12.
Science ; 373(6558): 991-998, 2021 08 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295160

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2003 and SARS-CoV-2 in 2019 highlights the need to develop universal vaccination strategies against the broader Sarbecovirus subgenus. Using chimeric spike designs, we demonstrate protection against challenge from SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351, bat CoV (Bt-CoV) RsSHC014, and a heterologous Bt-CoV WIV-1 in vulnerable aged mice. Chimeric spike messenger RNAs (mRNAs) induced high levels of broadly protective neutralizing antibodies against high-risk Sarbecoviruses. By contrast, SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination not only showed a marked reduction in neutralizing titers against heterologous Sarbecoviruses, but SARS-CoV and WIV-1 challenge in mice resulted in breakthrough infections. Chimeric spike mRNA vaccines efficiently neutralized D614G, mink cluster five, and the UK B.1.1.7 and South African B.1.351 variants of concern. Thus, multiplexed-chimeric spikes can prevent SARS-like zoonotic coronavirus infections with pandemic potential.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Protection , Cytokines/blood , Female , Immunity, Heterologous , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Liposomes , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nanoparticles , Protein Domains , Recombinant Fusion Proteins , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/prevention & control , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Replication
13.
Science ; 373(6556)2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295159

ABSTRACT

The emergence of highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) that are resistant to therapeutic antibodies highlights the need for continuing discovery of broadly reactive antibodies. We identified four receptor binding domain-targeting antibodies from three early-outbreak convalescent donors with potent neutralizing activity against 23 variants, including the B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, B.1.429, B.1.526, and B.1.617 VOCs. Two antibodies are ultrapotent, with subnanomolar neutralization titers [half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.3 to 11.1 nanograms per milliliter; IC80 1.5 to 34.5 nanograms per milliliter). We define the structural and functional determinants of binding for all four VOC-targeting antibodies and show that combinations of two antibodies decrease the in vitro generation of escape mutants, suggesting their potential in mitigating resistance development.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Neutralizing/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antibody Affinity , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/metabolism , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , Protein Domains , Receptors, Coronavirus/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Coronavirus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
Nature ; 596(7872): 423-427, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279884

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants that partially evade neutralizing antibodies poses a threat to the efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines1,2. The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine expresses a stabilized spike protein from the WA1/2020 strain of SARS-CoV-2, and has recently demonstrated protective efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19 in humans in several geographical regions-including in South Africa, where 95% of sequenced viruses in cases of COVID-19 were the B.1.351 variant3. Here we show that Ad26.COV2.S elicits humoral and cellular immune responses that cross-react with the B.1.351 variant and protects against B.1.351 challenge in rhesus macaques. Ad26.COV2.S induced lower binding and neutralizing antibodies against B.1.351 as compared to WA1/2020, but elicited comparable CD8 and CD4 T cell responses against the WA1/2020, B.1.351, B.1.1.7, P.1 and CAL.20C variants. B.1.351 infection of control rhesus macaques resulted in higher levels of virus replication in bronchoalveolar lavage and nasal swabs than did WA1/2020 infection. Ad26.COV2.S provided robust protection against both WA1/2020 and B.1.351, although we observed higher levels of virus in vaccinated macaques after B.1.351 challenge. These data demonstrate that Ad26.COV2.S provided robust protection against B.1.351 challenge in rhesus macaques. Our findings have important implications for vaccine control of SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Macaca mulatta/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Macaca mulatta/virology , Male , Nose/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Virus Replication
15.
Cell ; 184(16): 4203-4219.e32, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275187

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) protect against COVID-19. A concern regarding SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is whether they mediate disease enhancement. Here, we isolated NAbs against the receptor-binding domain (RBD) or the N-terminal domain (NTD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike from individuals with acute or convalescent SARS-CoV-2 or a history of SARS-CoV infection. Cryo-electron microscopy of RBD and NTD antibodies demonstrated function-specific modes of binding. Select RBD NAbs also demonstrated Fc receptor-γ (FcγR)-mediated enhancement of virus infection in vitro, while five non-neutralizing NTD antibodies mediated FcγR-independent in vitro infection enhancement. However, both types of infection-enhancing antibodies protected from SARS-CoV-2 replication in monkeys and mice. Three of 46 monkeys infused with enhancing antibodies had higher lung inflammation scores compared to controls. One monkey had alveolar edema and elevated bronchoalveolar lavage inflammatory cytokines. Thus, while in vitro antibody-enhanced infection does not necessarily herald enhanced infection in vivo, increased lung inflammation can rarely occur in SARS-CoV-2 antibody-infused macaques.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/metabolism , Female , Haplorhini , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Protein Domains , RNA, Guide/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Load , Virus Replication
16.
Nature ; 596(7871): 268-272, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1262005

ABSTRACT

The Ad26.COV2.S vaccine1-3 has demonstrated clinical efficacy against symptomatic COVID-19, including against the B.1.351 variant that is partially resistant to neutralizing antibodies1. However, the immunogenicity of this vaccine in humans against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern remains unclear. Here we report humoral and cellular immune responses from 20 Ad26.COV2.S vaccinated individuals from the COV1001 phase I-IIa clinical trial2 against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain WA1/2020 as well as against the B.1.1.7, CAL.20C, P.1 and B.1.351 variants of concern. Ad26.COV2.S induced median pseudovirus neutralizing antibody titres that were 5.0-fold and 3.3-fold lower against the B.1.351 and P.1 variants, respectively, as compared with WA1/2020 on day 71 after vaccination. Median binding antibody titres were 2.9-fold and 2.7-fold lower against the B.1.351 and P.1 variants, respectively, as compared with WA1/2020. Antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis, complement deposition and natural killer cell activation responses were largely preserved against the B.1.351 variant. CD8 and CD4 T cell responses, including central and effector memory responses, were comparable among the WA1/2020, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1 and CAL.20C variants. These data show that neutralizing antibody responses induced by Ad26.COV2.S were reduced against the B.1.351 and P.1 variants, but functional non-neutralizing antibody responses and T cell responses were largely preserved against SARS-CoV-2 variants. These findings have implications for vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
17.
Sci Transl Med ; 13(593)2021 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255516

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) poses a public health threat for which preventive and therapeutic agents are urgently needed. Neutralizing antibodies are a key class of therapeutics that may bridge widespread vaccination campaigns and offer a treatment solution in populations less responsive to vaccination. Here, we report that high-throughput microfluidic screening of antigen-specific B cells led to the identification of LY-CoV555 (also known as bamlanivimab), a potent anti-spike neutralizing antibody from a hospitalized, convalescent patient with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Biochemical, structural, and functional characterization of LY-CoV555 revealed high-affinity binding to the receptor-binding domain, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 binding inhibition, and potent neutralizing activity. A pharmacokinetic study of LY-CoV555 conducted in cynomolgus monkeys demonstrated a mean half-life of 13 days and a clearance of 0.22 ml hour-1 kg-1, consistent with a typical human therapeutic antibody. In a rhesus macaque challenge model, prophylactic doses as low as 2.5 mg/kg reduced viral replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract in samples collected through study day 6 after viral inoculation. This antibody has entered clinical testing and is being evaluated across a spectrum of COVID-19 indications, including prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
18.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(6): 100313, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240648

ABSTRACT

The continual emergence of novel coronaviruses (CoV), such as severe acute respiratory syndrome-(SARS)-CoV-2, highlights the critical need for broadly reactive therapeutics and vaccines against this family of viruses. From a recovered SARS-CoV donor sample, we identify and characterize a panel of six monoclonal antibodies that cross-react with CoV spike (S) proteins from the highly pathogenic SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and demonstrate a spectrum of reactivity against other CoVs. Epitope mapping reveals that these antibodies recognize multiple epitopes on SARS-CoV-2 S, including the receptor-binding domain, the N-terminal domain, and the S2 subunit. Functional characterization demonstrates that the antibodies mediate phagocytosis-and in some cases trogocytosis-but not neutralization in vitro. When tested in vivo in murine models, two of the antibodies demonstrate a reduction in hemorrhagic pathology in the lungs. The identification of cross-reactive epitopes recognized by functional antibodies expands the repertoire of targets for pan-coronavirus vaccine design strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , B-Lymphocytes/cytology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Phagocytosis , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
19.
Nature ; 594(7864): 553-559, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1221200

ABSTRACT

Betacoronaviruses caused the outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome, as well as the current pandemic of SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)1-4. Vaccines that elicit protective immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and betacoronaviruses that circulate in animals have the potential to prevent future pandemics. Here we show that the immunization of macaques with nanoparticles conjugated with the receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, and adjuvanted with 3M-052 and alum, elicits cross-neutralizing antibody responses against bat coronaviruses, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 (including the B.1.1.7, P.1 and B.1.351 variants). Vaccination of macaques with these nanoparticles resulted in a 50% inhibitory reciprocal serum dilution (ID50) neutralization titre of 47,216 (geometric mean) for SARS-CoV-2, as well as in protection against SARS-CoV-2 in the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Nucleoside-modified mRNAs that encode a stabilized transmembrane spike or monomeric receptor-binding domain also induced cross-neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses, albeit at lower titres than achieved with the nanoparticles. These results demonstrate that current mRNA-based vaccines may provide some protection from future outbreaks of zoonotic betacoronaviruses, and provide a multimeric protein platform for the further development of vaccines against multiple (or all) betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Common Cold/prevention & control , Cross Reactions/immunology , Pandemics , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Common Cold/immunology , Common Cold/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Macaca/immunology , Male , Models, Molecular , Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Trachea , Vaccination
20.
J Virol ; 2021 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195822

ABSTRACT

Respiratory virus challenge studies involve administration of the challenge virus and sampling to assess for protection from the same anatomical locations. It can therefore be difficult to differentiate actively replicating virus from input challenge virus. For SARS-CoV-2, specific monitoring of actively replicating virus is critical to investigate the protective and therapeutic efficacy of vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and antiviral drugs. We developed a SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) RT-PCR assay to differentiate productive infection from inactivated or neutralized virus. Subgenomic RNAs are generated after cell entry and are poorly incorporate into mature virions, and thus may provide a marker for actively replicating virus. We show envelope (E) sgRNA was degraded by RNase in infected cell lysates, while genomic RNA (gRNA) was protected, presumably due to packaging into virions. To investigate the capacity of the sgRNA assay to distinguish input challenge virus from actively replicating virus in vivo, we compared the E sgRNA assay to a standard nucleoprotein (N) or E total RNA assay in convalescent rhesus macaques and in antibody-treated rhesus macaques after experimental SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In both studies, the E sgRNA assay was negative, suggesting protective efficacy, whereas the N and E total RNA assays remained positive. These data suggest the potential utility of sgRNA to monitor actively replicating virus in prophylactic and therapeutic SARS-CoV-2 studies.ImportanceDeveloping therapeutic and prophylactic countermeasures for the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a public health priority. During challenge studies, respiratory viruses are delivered and sampled from the same anatomical location. It is therefore important to distinguish actively replicating virus from input challenge virus. The most common assay for detecting SARS-CoV-2 virus, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting nucleocapsid total RNA, cannot distinguish neutralized input virus from replicating virus. In this study, we assess SARS-CoV-2 subgenomic RNA as a potential measure of replicating virus in rhesus macaques.

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