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1.
Transfus Apher Sci ; : 103578, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031718

ABSTRACT

In May 2020, after years of demands by activists and in light of COVID-19-related blood shortages, the Brazilian Federal Supreme Court abolished the rules that demanded a 12-month celibacy period for men who have sex with men (MSM) to donate blood. The objective of this open web survey was to assess the perceptions and practices regarding blood donation and blood donation rules among members of the Brazilian LGBT+ community. The data collection was conducted between October 2019 and March 2020, before the changes in the rules for blood donation and before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. A total of 1639 adult individuals, self-declared as LGBT+ , participated (54.3 % MSM, 2.2 non-MSM, 43.5 % women). As expected, most of the study participants did not agree with the 12-month deferral period for MSM donate blood. Blood donation was already practiced by MSM, even before the abolition of the restrictions on donation. Among MSM and women, 38.7 % and 41.0 % have already donated blood, respectively. A significant number of participants reported lying in screening interviews at blood banks in order to be able to donate, and many said they knew people who were MSM and disobeyed the rules for donation, even though they knew them. Therefore, the practice of blood donation was already present among these people, even before the restriction policy change, confirming the need for revised rules for blood donation.

3.
J Integr Med ; 20(3): 221-229, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1734761

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Different homeopathic approaches have been used as supportive care for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, but none has been tested in a clinical trial. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of the homeopathic medicine, Natrum muriaticum LM2, for mild cases of COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: A randomized, double-blind, two-armed, parallel, single-center, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from June 2020 to April 2021 in São-Carlos, Brazil. Participants aged > 18 years, with influenza-like symptoms and positive result from a real-time polymerase chain reaction test for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 were recruited and randomized (1:1) into two groups that received different treatments during a period of at-home-isolation. One group received the homeopathic medicine Natrum muriaticum, prepared with the second degree of the fifty-millesimal dynamization (LM2; Natrum muriaticum LM2), while the other group received a placebo. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary endpoint was time until recovery from COVID-19 influenza-like symptoms. Secondary measures included a survival analysis of the number and severity of COVID-19 symptoms (influenza-like symptoms plus anosmia and ageusia) from a symptom grading scale that was informed by the participant, hospital admissions, and adverse events. Kaplan-Meier curves were used to estimate time-to-event (survival) measures. RESULTS: Data from 86 participants were analyzed (homeopathy, n = 42; placebo, n = 44). There was no difference in time to recovery between two groups among participants who were reporting influenza-like symptoms at the beginning of monitoring (homeopathy, n = 41; placebo, n = 41; P = 0.56), nor in a sub-group that had at least 5 moderate to severe influenza-like symptoms at the beginning of monitoring (homeopathy, n = 15; placebo, n = 17; P = 0.06). Secondary outcomes indicated that a 50% reduction in symptom score was achieved significantly earlier in the homeopathy group (homeopathy, n = 24; placebo, n = 25; P = 0.04), among the participants with a basal symptom score ≥ 5. Moreover, values of restricted mean survival time indicated that patients receiving homeopathy might have improved 0.9 days faster during the first five days of follow-up (P = 0.022). Hospitalization rates were 2.4% in the homeopathy group and 6.8% in the placebo group (P = 0.62). Participants reported 3 adverse events in the homeopathy group and 6 in the placebo group. CONCLUSION: Results showed that Natrum muriaticum LM2 was safe to use for COVID-19, but there was no statistically significant difference in the primary endpoints of Natrum muriaticum LM2 and placebo for mild COVID-19 cases. Although some secondary measures do not support the null hypothesis, the wide confidence intervals suggest that further studies with larger sample sizes and more symptomatic participants are needed to test the effectiveness of homeopathic Natrum muriaticum LM2 for COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trials Registry ID: JPRN-UMIN000040602.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Homeopathy , Influenza, Human , Materia Medica , COVID-19/therapy , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Materia Medica/therapeutic use , Primary Health Care , Treatment Outcome
4.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet ; 44(3): 311-318, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662002

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The present article presents a literature review concerning the microbiota of breast milk and the influence of epigenetics in the susceptibility to COVID-19. METHODS: A literature review. RESULTS: Breastfeeding transfers microbiota, nutrients, diverse white blood cells, prebiotics, hormones, and antibodies to the baby, which provide short- and long-term immunological protection against several infectious, gastrointestinal, and respiratory illnesses. The little evidence available shows that breast milk very rarely carries the SARS-CoV-2 virus, and even in those cases, it has been discarded as the source of contagion. CONCLUSION: The reviewed studies show evidence of a beneficial effect of breastfeeding and highlights its importance on the current pandemic due to the immune reinforcement that it provides. Breastfed individuals showed better clinical response due to the influence on the microbiota and to the nutritional and immune contribution provided by breast milk, compared with those who were not breastfed.


OBJETIVO: O presente artigo apresenta uma revisão de literatura sobre a microbiota do leite materno e a influência da epigenética na suscetibilidade à COVID-19. MéTODOS: Revisão de literatura. RESULTADOS: A amamentação transfere microbiota, nutrientes, diversos glóbulos brancos, prebióticos, hormônios e anticorpos para o bebê, os quais proporcionam proteção imunológica de curto e longo prazo contra diversas doenças infecciosas, gastrointestinais e respiratórias. As poucas evidências disponíveis mostram que o leite materno transporta muito raramente o vírus SARS-CoV-2, e mesmo nestes casos, ele foi descartado como fonte de contágio. CONCLUSãO: Os estudos revisados mostram evidências de um efeito benéfico da amamentação e destacam sua importância na atual pandemia devido ao reforço imunológico que ela proporciona. Os indivíduos amamentados mostraram melhor resposta clínica devido à influência sobre a microbiota, e à contribuição nutricional e imunológica proporcionada pelo leite materno, em comparação com aqueles que não o foram.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Breast Feeding , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e01382021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1346344

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: We investigated the association of self-reported comorbidities with fatality risk among individuals infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. METHODS: We included 212,620 individuals, ≥30 years old. The data were obtained from the COVID-19 panel. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression model were used. RESULTS: COVID-19-positive individuals presenting with chronic conditions were at a higher risk of fatality than individuals without these comorbidities. Age had a significant effect on these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities were associated with an increased risk of fatality. Middle-aged people (30-59 years) with comorbidities should also be considered as a vulnerable group.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , COVID-19 , Brazil/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Environment , SARS-CoV-2 , Middle Aged
6.
Trends Psychiatry Psychother ; 43(4): 329-334, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181888

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Studies based on knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) theory are conducted to identify ways to improve strategies aimed at preventing and combatting certain conditions or diseases, to understand the way how behavioral changes are assimilated by the populations, and to reorient interventions. In view of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, studies based on KAP theory have been useful to better understand certain behaviors, such as adherence to prevention measures and control of the spread of the virus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the process of cross-cultural adaptation of two complementary instruments for assessing KAP regarding the COVID-19 pandemic in the Brazilian population. METHODS: Two independent translators proposed a first Brazilian Portuguese version of the scales. The cultural adaptation and pre-test of the Brazilian Portuguese versions occurred at different stages, using a panel of specialists and a subsample of the target population, respectively. RESULTS: The pre-test of the adapted instruments involved 30 Brazilian adults (mean age = 41.8 years; standard deviation = 4.24) and was carried out to assess instrument understanding and applicability. The participants informed they did not have difficulties to self-complete the instruments and reported a high level of clarity and understanding. CONCLUSION: Both instruments can bring an opportunity to study behavioral constructs about COVID-19 in the Brazilian population, aiming to articulate strategies that enable the fulfillment of effective preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Translations
7.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e07622020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090507

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the performance of Bayesian vector autoregressive (BVAR) and Holt's models to forecast the weekly COVID-19 reported cases in six units of a large hospital. METHODS: Cases reported from epidemiologic weeks (EW) 12-37 were selected as the training period, and from EW 38-41 as the test period. RESULTS: The models performed well in forecasting cases within one or two weeks following the end of the time-series, but forecasts for a more distant period were inaccurate. CONCLUSIONS: Both models offered reasonable performance in very short-term forecasts for confirmed cases of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Bayes Theorem , Feasibility Studies , Forecasting , Hospitals , Humans , Models, Theoretical , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Trials ; 22(1): 109, 2021 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1058267

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effectiveness and safety of homeopathic medicine Natrum muriaticum (LM2) for mild cases of COVID-19 in Primary Health Care. TRIAL DESIGN: A randomized, two-armed (1:1), parallel, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial is being performed to test the following hypotheses: H0: homeopathic medicines = placebo (null hypothesis) vs. H1: homeopathic medicines ≠ placebo (alternative hypothesis) for mild cases of COVID-19 in Primary Care. PARTICIPANTS: Setting: Primary Care of São Carlos - São Paulo - Brazil. One hundred participants aged 18 years or older, with Influenza-like symptoms and a positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2. Willingness to give informed consent and to comply with the study procedures is also required. Exclusion criterium: severe acute respiratory syndrome. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Homeopathy: 1 globule of Natrum muriaticum LM2 diluted in 20 mL of alcohol 30% and dispensed in a 30 ml bottle. Placebo: 20 mL of alcohol 30% dispensed in a 30 ml bottle. Posology: one drop taken orally every 4 hours (6 doses/day) while there is fever, cough, tiredness, or pain (headache, sore throat, muscle aches, chest pain, etc.) followed by one drop every 6 hours (4 doses/day) until the fourteenth day of use. The bottle of study medication should be submitted to 10 vigorous shakes (succussions) before each dose. Posology may be changed by telemedicine, with no break in blinding. Study medication should be maintained during home isolation. According to the Primary Care protocol, the home isolation period lasts until the 10th day after the appearance of the first symptom, or up to 72 hours without symptoms. MAIN OUTCOMES: The primary endpoint will be time to recovery, defined as the number of days elapsed before all COVID-19 Influenza-like symptoms are recorded as mild or absent during home isolation period. Secondary measures are recovery time for each COVID-19 symptom; score of the scale created for the study (COVID-Simile Scale); medicines used during follow-up; number of days of follow-up; number of visits to emergency services; number of hospitalizations; other symptoms and Adverse Events during home isolation period. RANDOMISATION: The study Statistician generated a block randomization list, using a 1:1 ratio of the two groups (denoted as A and B) and a web-based tool ( http://www.random.org/lists ). BLINDING (MASKING): The clinical investigators, the statistician, the Primary Care teams, the study collaborators, and the participants will remain blinded from the identity of the two treatment groups until the end of the study. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): One hundred participants are planned to be randomized (1:1) to placebo (50) or homeopathy (50). TRIAL STATUS: Protocol version/date May 21, 2020. Recruitment is ongoing. First participant was recruited/included on June 29,2020. Due to recruitment adaptations to Primary Care changes, the authors anticipate the trial will finish recruiting on April 10, 2021. TRIAL REGISTRATION: COVID-Simile Study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN - https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/index.htm ) on June 1st, 2020, and the trial start date was June 15, 2020. Unique ID: UMIN000040602. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Homeopathy/methods , Materia Medica/administration & dosage , Primary Health Care/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Homeopathy/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.2):4157-4168, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742515

ABSTRACT

Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior are associated with poor physical and mental health. The article aims to assess the changes in the habits of the Brazilian participants engaged in physical activities in relation to their practices, due the measures of social distancing during the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020. The secondary objective was to describe their levels of anxiety and depression. The questionnaire used in this online survey included demographic information, questions about self-perceptions of the impact of the COVID-19 in the life routines and the 14-item Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. A total of 1,613 adults completed the questionnaire between May 11 and 15, 2020. Of those, 79.4% reported that the measures to contain the epidemic had any impact on their physical activities, and many had to interrupt or decrease the frequency of their practices. Participants who felt a higher impact of quarantine on their physical activities tend to have higher prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms. Individuals who practiced physical activities reported that social distance had a high influence on their practices. Furthermore, changes in these habits are associated with high levels of poor mental health. Resumo Inatividade física e sedentarismo são associados com baixa saúde física e mental. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar as mudanças nos hábitos dos participantes brasileiros praticantes de atividades físicas em relação às suas práticas, devido às medidas de distanciamento social durante a epidemia COVID-19 em 2020. O objetivo secundário foi descrever seus níveis de ansiedade e depressão. O questionário utilizado nesta pesquisa on-line incluiu informações demográficas, questões sobre a autopercepção do impacto do COVID-19 nas rotinas da vida e a Escala de Depressão de Ansiedade Hospitalar de 14 itens. Um total de 1.613 adultos completou o questionário entre 11 e 15 de maio de 2020. Destes, 79,4% relataram que as medidas para conter a epidemia tiveram algum impacto em suas atividades físicas e muitos tiveram que interromper ou diminuir a frequência de suas práticas. Os participantes que sentiram um maior impacto da quarentena em suas atividades físicas tendem a ter maior prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão. Os indivíduos que praticavam atividades físicas relataram que o distanciamento social teve alta influência em suas práticas. Além disso, as mudanças destes hábitos são associadas com altos níveis de precária saúde mental.

10.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53:e20200481-e20200481, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742514

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Mathematical models have been used to obtain long-term forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: The daily COVID-19 case count in two Brazilian states was used to show the potential limitations of long-term forecasting through the application of a mathematical model to the data. RESULTS: The predicted number of cases at the end of the epidemic and at the moment that the peak occurs, is highly dependent on the length of the time series used in the predictive model. CONCLUSIONS: Predictions obtained during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic need to be viewed with caution.

11.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53:e20200283-e20200283, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742513

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the performance of the Holt's model to forecast the daily COVID-19 reported cases in Brazil and three Brazilian states. METHODS: We chose the date of the first COVID-19 case to April 25, 2020, as the training period, and April 26 to May 3, 2020, as the test period. RESULTS: The Holt's model performed well in forecasting the cases in Brazil and in São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, but the forecasts were underestimated in Rio de Janeiro state. Conclusions: The Holt's model can be an adequate short-term forecasting method if their assumptions are adequately verified and validated by experts.

12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(supl.2):4157-4168, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-741556

ABSTRACT

Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior are associated with poor physical and mental health. The article aims to assess the changes in the habits of the Brazilian participants engaged in physical activities in relation to their practices, due the measures of social distancing during the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020. The secondary objective was to describe their levels of anxiety and depression. The questionnaire used in this online survey included demographic information, questions about self-perceptions of the impact of the COVID-19 in the life routines and the 14-item Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. A total of 1,613 adults completed the questionnaire between May 11 and 15, 2020. Of those, 79.4% reported that the measures to contain the epidemic had any impact on their physical activities, and many had to interrupt or decrease the frequency of their practices. Participants who felt a higher impact of quarantine on their physical activities tend to have higher prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms. Individuals who practiced physical activities reported that social distance had a high influence on their practices. Furthermore, changes in these habits are associated with high levels of poor mental health. Resumo Inatividade física e sedentarismo são associados com baixa saúde física e mental. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar as mudanças nos hábitos dos participantes brasileiros praticantes de atividades físicas em relação às suas práticas, devido às medidas de distanciamento social durante a epidemia COVID-19 em 2020. O objetivo secundário foi descrever seus níveis de ansiedade e depressão. O questionário utilizado nesta pesquisa on-line incluiu informações demográficas, questões sobre a autopercepção do impacto do COVID-19 nas rotinas da vida e a Escala de Depressão de Ansiedade Hospitalar de 14 itens. Um total de 1.613 adultos completou o questionário entre 11 e 15 de maio de 2020. Destes, 79,4% relataram que as medidas para conter a epidemia tiveram algum impacto em suas atividades físicas e muitos tiveram que interromper ou diminuir a frequência de suas práticas. Os participantes que sentiram um maior impacto da quarentena em suas atividades físicas tendem a ter maior prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão. Os indivíduos que praticavam atividades físicas relataram que o distanciamento social teve alta influência em suas práticas. Além disso, as mudanças destes hábitos são associadas com altos níveis de precária saúde mental.

13.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 25(supl.2): 4157-4168, Mar. 2020. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-836003

ABSTRACT

Abstract Physical inactivity and sedentary behavior are associated with poor physical and mental health. The article aims to assess the changes in the habits of the Brazilian participants engaged in physical activities in relation to their practices, due the measures of social distancing during the COVID-19 epidemic in 2020. The secondary objective was to describe their levels of anxiety and depression. The questionnaire used in this online survey included demographic information, questions about self-perceptions of the impact of the COVID-19 in the life routines and the 14-item Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. A total of 1,613 adults completed the questionnaire between May 11 and 15, 2020. Of those, 79.4% reported that the measures to contain the epidemic had any impact on their physical activities, and many had to interrupt or decrease the frequency of their practices. Participants who felt a higher impact of quarantine on their physical activities tend to have higher prevalence of anxiety and depression symptoms. Individuals who practiced physical activities reported that social distance had a high influence on their practices. Furthermore, changes in these habits are associated with high levels of poor mental health.


Resumo Inatividade física e sedentarismo são associados com baixa saúde física e mental. O objetivo deste artigo é avaliar as mudanças nos hábitos dos participantes brasileiros praticantes de atividades físicas em relação às suas práticas, devido às medidas de distanciamento social durante a epidemia COVID-19 em 2020. O objetivo secundário foi descrever seus níveis de ansiedade e depressão. O questionário utilizado nesta pesquisa on-line incluiu informações demográficas, questões sobre a autopercepção do impacto do COVID-19 nas rotinas da vida e a Escala de Depressão de Ansiedade Hospitalar de 14 itens. Um total de 1.613 adultos completou o questionário entre 11 e 15 de maio de 2020. Destes, 79,4% relataram que as medidas para conter a epidemia tiveram algum impacto em suas atividades físicas e muitos tiveram que interromper ou diminuir a frequência de suas práticas. Os participantes que sentiram um maior impacto da quarentena em suas atividades físicas tendem a ter maior prevalência de sintomas de ansiedade e depressão. Os indivíduos que praticavam atividades físicas relataram que o distanciamento social teve alta influência em suas práticas. Além disso, as mudanças destes hábitos são associadas com altos níveis de precária saúde mental.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Exercise , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Anxiety/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Depression/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Middle Aged
14.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200481, 2020. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-740418

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Mathematical models have been used to obtain long-term forecasts of the COVID-19 epidemic. METHODS: The daily COVID-19 case count in two Brazilian states was used to show the potential limitations of long-term forecasting through the application of a mathematical model to the data. RESULTS: The predicted number of cases at the end of the epidemic and at the moment that the peak occurs, is highly dependent on the length of the time series used in the predictive model. CONCLUSIONS: Predictions obtained during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic need to be viewed with caution.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Models, Statistical , Coronavirus Infections , Forecasting , Betacoronavirus
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 53: e20200283, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-593737

ABSTRACT

Abstract: INTRODUCTION: We evaluated the performance of the Holt's model to forecast the daily COVID-19 reported cases in Brazil and three Brazilian states. METHODS: We chose the date of the first COVID-19 case to April 25, 2020, as the training period, and April 26 to May 3, 2020, as the test period. RESULTS: The Holt's model performed well in forecasting the cases in Brazil and in São Paulo and Minas Gerais states, but the forecasts were underestimated in Rio de Janeiro state. Conclusions: The Holt's model can be an adequate short-term forecasting method if their assumptions are adequately verified and validated by experts.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Forecasting/methods , Betacoronavirus , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections
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