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Nat Microbiol ; 5(12): 1598-1607, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892039


Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 can be detected in most infected individuals 10-15 d after the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. However, due to the recent emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in the human population, it is not known how long antibody responses will be maintained or whether they will provide protection from reinfection. Using sequential serum samples collected up to 94 d post onset of symptoms (POS) from 65 individuals with real-time quantitative PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, we show seroconversion (immunoglobulin (Ig)M, IgA, IgG) in >95% of cases and neutralizing antibody responses when sampled beyond 8 d POS. We show that the kinetics of the neutralizing antibody response is typical of an acute viral infection, with declining neutralizing antibody titres observed after an initial peak, and that the magnitude of this peak is dependent on disease severity. Although some individuals with high peak infective dose (ID50 > 10,000) maintained neutralizing antibody titres >1,000 at >60 d POS, some with lower peak ID50 had neutralizing antibody titres approaching baseline within the follow-up period. A similar decline in neutralizing antibody titres was observed in a cohort of 31 seropositive healthcare workers. The present study has important implications when considering widespread serological testing and antibody protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2, and may suggest that vaccine boosters are required to provide long-lasting protection.

Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
J Adolesc Health ; 67(6): 763-768, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872192


PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in a university student population. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional survey study based on the World Health Organization population-based seroepidemiological investigational protocol for SARS-CoV-2 conducted between April 29, 2020, and May 8, 2020, examining SARS-CoV-2 antibody prevalence among 790 university students in Los Angeles, CA. Participants completed a questionnaire on potential risk factors before blood sampling. Samples were analyzed using the EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 ELISA (IgG) for the qualitative detection of IgG class antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in human serum or plasma. RESULTS: The estimated prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibody was 4.0% (3.0%, 5.1%). Factors associated with having a positive test included history of anosmia and/or loss of taste (95% CI: 1.4-9.6). A history of respiratory symptoms, with or without fever, was not associated with a positive antibody test. CONCLUSIONS: Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the undergraduate and graduate student university population was similar to community prevalence.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Students/statistics & numerical data , Universities , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Prevalence , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
Nat Med ; 26(10): 1623-1635, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-717130


Improved understanding and management of COVID-19, a potentially life-threatening disease, could greatly reduce the threat posed by its etiologic agent, SARS-CoV-2. Toward this end, we have identified a core peripheral blood immune signature across 63 hospital-treated patients with COVID-19 who were otherwise highly heterogeneous. The signature includes discrete changes in B and myelomonocytic cell composition, profoundly altered T cell phenotypes, selective cytokine/chemokine upregulation and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Some signature traits identify links with other settings of immunoprotection and immunopathology; others, including basophil and plasmacytoid dendritic cell depletion, correlate strongly with disease severity; while a third set of traits, including a triad of IP-10, interleukin-10 and interleukin-6, anticipate subsequent clinical progression. Hence, contingent upon independent validation in other COVID-19 cohorts, individual traits within this signature may collectively and individually guide treatment options; offer insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis; and aid early, risk-based patient stratification that is particularly beneficial in phasic diseases such as COVID-19.

Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Basophils/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cell Cycle , Chemokine CXCL10/immunology , Chemokines/immunology , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Flow Cytometry , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Immunophenotyping , Interleukin-10/immunology , Interleukin-6/immunology , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Up-Regulation