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1.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(6)2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869856

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of the post-COVID condition is usually achieved by excluding other diseases; however, cognitive changes are often found in the post-COVID disorder. Therefore, monitoring and treating the recovery from the post-COVID condition is necessary to establish biomarkers to guide the diagnosis of symptoms, including cognitive impairment. Our study employs a prospected cohort and nested case-control design with mixed methods, including statistical analyses, interviews, and focus groups. Our main aim is to identify biomarkers (functional and structural neural changes, inflammatory and immune status, vascular and vestibular signs and symptoms) easily applied in primary care to detect cognitive changes in post-COVID cases. The results will open up a new line of research to inform diagnostic and therapeutic decisions with special considerations for cognitive impairment in the post-COVID condition.

2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1863963

ABSTRACT

The role of T cells in the control of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been underestimated in favor of neutralizing antibodies. However, cellular immunity is essential for long-term viral control and protection from disease severity. To understand T-cell immunity in the absence of antibody generation we focused on a group of SARS-CoV-2 Non-Seroconvertors (NSC) recovered from infection. We performed an immune comparative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals stratified by the absence or presence of seroconversion and disease severity. We report high levels of total naïve and low effector CD8+ T cells in NSC. Moreover, reduced levels of T-cell activation monitored by PD-1 and activation-induced markers were observed in the context of functional SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses. Longitudinal data indicate the stability of the NSC phenotype over three months of follow-up after infection. Together, these data characterized distinctive immunological traits in NSC including skewed cellular distribution, low activation and functional SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses. This data highlights the value of T-cell immune monitoring in populations with low seroconversion rates in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(9)2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820302

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) alter the immune system and therefore increase the risk of infection. There is growing concern about the impact of COVID-19 on patients with MS (pwMS), especially those treated with DMTs. METHODS: This is a single-center prospective observational study based on data from the Esclerosis Múltiple y COVID-19 (EMCOVID-19) study. Demographic characteristics, MS history, laboratory data and SARS-CoV-2 serology, and symptoms of COVID-19 in pwMS treated with any DTM were extracted. The relationship among demographics, MS status, DMT, and COVID-19 was evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 259 pwMS were included. The administration of interferon was significantly associated with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (26.4% vs. 10.7%, p = 0.006). Although patients taking interferon were significantly older (49.1 vs. 43.5, p = 0.003), the association of interferon with the presence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was still significant in the multivariate analysis (OR 2.99 (1.38; 6.36), p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: According to our data, pwMS present a higher risk of COVID-19 infection compared with results obtained from the general population. There is no evidence of a worse COVID-19 outcome in pwMS. DMTs did not significantly change the frequency of COVID-19, except for interferon; however, these findings must be interpreted with caution given the small sample of pwMS taking each DMT.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329353

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the immune response to the SARS-CoV-2 virus is critical for efficient monitoring and defence strategies. The ProHEpic-19 cohort provides a fine-grained description of the kinetics of antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 infection with an exceptional resolution over 17 months.MethodsWe established a cohort of 769 health professionals including healthy and infected with SARS-CoV-2 in northern Barcelona to determine the kinetics of the IgM against the nucleocapsid (N) and the IgG against the N and spike (S) of SARS-CoV-2. We used non-linear mixed models to investigate the kinetics of IgG and IgM measured at nine time points over 17 months from the diagnosis. The model included factors of time, gender, and disease severity (asymptomatic, mild-moderate, severe-critical) to assess their effects and their interactions. Findings: 474 of the 769 participants (61.6%) became infected with SARS-CoV-2. Significant effects of gender and disease severity were found for the levels of all three antibodies. Median IgM(N) levels were already below the positivity threshold in patients with asymptomatic and mild-moderate disease at day 270 after the diagnosis, while IgG(N and S) levels remained positive at least until days 450 and 270, respectively. Kinetic modelling showed a general rise in both IgM(N) and IgG(N) levels up to day 30, followed by a decay with a rate depending on disease severity. IgG(S) levels remained relatively constant from day 15 over time.Interpretation: IgM(N) and IgG(N, S) SARS-CoV-2 antibodies showed a heterogeneous kinetics over the 13 months. Only the IgG(S) showed a stable increase, and the levels and the kinetics of antibodies varied according to disease severity. The kinetics of IgM and IgG observed over a year also varied by clinical spectrum can be very useful for public health policies around vaccination criteria in adult population. Funding Regional Ministry of Health of the Generalitat de Catalunya (Call COVID19-PoC SLT16_04;NCT04885478)

5.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327256

ABSTRACT

Background: Almost two years since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic no predictive algorithm has been generally adopted, nor new tests identified to improve the prediction and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: Retrospective observational analysis of the predictive performance of clinical parameters and laboratory tests in hospitalised patients with COVID-19. Outcomes were 28-day survival and maximal severity in a cohort of 1,579 patients and two validation cohorts of 598 and 434 patients. A pilot study conducted in a patient subgroup measured 17 cytokines and 27 lymphocyte phenotypes to explore additional predictive laboratory tests. Findings: 1) Despite a strong association of 22 clinical and laboratory variables with the outcomes, their joint prediction power was limited due to redundancy. 2) Eight variables: age, comorbidity index, oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, C-reactive protein, aspartate aminotransferase/alanine aminotransferase ratio, fibrinogen, and glomerular filtration rate captured most of the statistical predictive power. 3) The interpretation of clinical and laboratory variables was improved by grouping them in categories. 4) Age and organ damage-related tests were the best predictors of survival, and inflammatory-related tests were the best predictors of severity. 5) The pilot study identified several immunological tests (including chemokine ligand 10, chemokine ligand 2, and interleukin 1 receptor antagonist), that performed better than currently used tests. Conclusions: Currently used tests for clinical management of COVID 19 patients are of limited value due to redundancy, as all measure aspects of two major processes: inflammation, and organ damage. There are no independent predictors based on the quality of the nascent adaptive immune response. Understanding the limitations of current tests would improve their interpretation and simplify clinical management protocols. A systematic search for better biomarkers is urgent and feasible.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316525

ABSTRACT

Background: One hundred million of contagions, more than 2 million deaths and less than one year of COVID-19 have changed our lives and our health management systems forever. Ageing is known to be one of the significant determinants for COVID-19 severity. Two main reasons underlie this: immunosenescence and age correlation with main COVID-19 comorbidities such as hypertension or dyslipidaemia. This study has two aims. The first is to obtain cut-off points for laboratory parameters that can help us in clinical decision-making. The second one is to analyse the effect of pandemic lockdown on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory parameters concerning the severity of the COVID-19. For these purposes, 257 of SARSCoV2 inpatients during pandemic confinement were included in this study. Moreover, 584 case records from a previously analysed series, were compared with the present study data. Results: : Concerning the characteristics of lockdown series, mild cases accounted for 14.4%, 54.1% were moderate and 31.5%, severe. There were 32.5% of home contagions, 26.3% community transmissions, 22.5% nursing home contagions, and 8.8% corresponding to frontline worker contagions regarding epidemiological features. Age >60 and male sex are hereby confirmed as severity determinants. Equally, higher severity was significantly associated with higher IL6, CRP, ferritin, LDH, and leukocyte counts, and a lower percentage of lymphocyte, CD4 and CD8 count. Comparing this cohort with a previous 584-cases series, mild cases were less than those analysed in the first moment of the pandemic and dyslipidaemia became more frequent than before. Age, lymphocyte count and LDH had similar distributions at both moments. IL-6, CRP and LDH values above 69 pg/mL, 97 mg/L and 328 U/L respectively, as well as a CD4 T-cell count below 535 cells/μL, were the best cut-offs predicting severity since these parameters offered reliable areas under the curve. Conclusion: Age, sex and dyslipidaemia together with selected laboratory parameters on admission can help us predict COVID-19 severity and, therefore, make clinical and resource management decisions. Demographic features associated with lockdown could affect the homogeneity of the data and the robustness of the results.

7.
Brain Behav Immun Health ; 19: 100405, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immune mechanisms are part of the pathophysiology of mental disorders, although their role remains controversial. In depressive disorders a chronic low-grade inflammatory process is observed, with higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) values. Furthermore, in SARS-CoV2 infection, which is closely related to depressive disorders, there is a proinflammatory cascade of cytokines that causes systemic inflammation. METHODS: The present study evaluates the relationship between IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels and the presence of depressive and adjustment disorders in a sample of 1851 patients admitted to hospital for SARS-CoV2 infection from March to November 2020. Concentrations of IL-6 and CRP were determined within the first 72 â€‹h at admission and compared among groups of patients according to previous history and current presence of depression or adjustment disorders. RESULTS: IL-6 serum levels were significantly higher in the group of patients with depression and adjustment disorders compared to patients without such disorders (114.25 â€‹pg/mL (SD, 225.44) vs. 86.41 (SD, 202.97)), even after adjusting for several confounders. Similar results were obtained for CRP (103.94 â€‹mg/L (SD, 91.16) vs. 90.14 (SD, 85.73)). The absolute levels of IL-6 and CRP were higher than those of previous depression studies, and differences were only found for the subgroup of De Novo depressive or adjustment disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP are higher in COVID-19 patients with De Novo but not persistent depressive or adjustment disorders. Clinical features such as fatigue, asthenia, anhedonia, or anxiety can be the basis for this finding.

8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 709893, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1403459

ABSTRACT

Highlights: Innate immune activation during Covid-19 infection is associated with pernicious clinical outcome. Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is a worldwide threat that has already caused more than 3 000 000 deaths. It is characterized by different patterns of disease evolution depending on host factors among which old-age and pre-existing comorbidities play a detrimental role. Previous coronavirus epidemics, notably SARS-CoV, were associated with increased serum neopterin levels, which can be interpreted as a sign of acute innate immunity in response to viral infection. Here we hypothesize that neopterin may serve as a biomarker of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection and Covid-19 disease severity. Methods: We measured neopterin blood levels by ELISA. Seric concentration was quantified from 256 healthy donors and 374 Covid-19 patients at hospital admission. Enrolled Covid-19 patients were all symptomatic and displayed a large spectrum of comorbidities. Patients were followed until disease resolution or death. Results: Severe and critically ill SARS-CoV-2 infected patients were characterized by a profound exacerbation of immune activation characterized by elevated neopterin blood levels. Systemic neopterin levels above 19nM stratified healthy individuals from Covid-19 patients with 87% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Moreover, systemic neopterin levels above 53nM differentiated non-survivors from survivors with 64% specificity and 100% sensitivity. Conclusion: We propose that neopterin concentration measured at arrival to hospital is a hallmark of severe Covid-19 and identifies a high-risk population of pernicious clinical outcome with a need for special medical care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Neopterin , Critical Illness , Humans
9.
Immun Ageing ; 18(1): 24, 2021 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238723

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: One hundred fifty million contagions, more than 3 million deaths and little more than 1 year of COVID-19 have changed our lives and our health management systems forever. Ageing is known to be one of the significant determinants for COVID-19 severity. Two main reasons underlie this: immunosenescence and age correlation with main COVID-19 comorbidities such as hypertension or dyslipidaemia. This study has two aims. The first is to obtain cut-off points for laboratory parameters that can help us in clinical decision-making. The second one is to analyse the effect of pandemic lockdown on epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory parameters concerning the severity of the COVID-19. For these purposes, 257 of SARSCoV2 inpatients during pandemic confinement were included in this study. Moreover, 584 case records from a previously analysed series, were compared with the present study data. RESULTS: Concerning the characteristics of lockdown series, mild cases accounted for 14.4, 54.1% were moderate and 31.5%, severe. There were 32.5% of home contagions, 26.3% community transmissions, 22.5% nursing home contagions, and 8.8% corresponding to frontline worker contagions regarding epidemiological features. Age > 60 and male sex are hereby confirmed as severity determinants. Equally, higher severity was significantly associated with higher IL6, CRP, ferritin, LDH, and leukocyte counts, and a lower percentage of lymphocyte, CD4 and CD8 count. Comparing this cohort with a previous 584-cases series, mild cases were less than those analysed in the first moment of the pandemic and dyslipidaemia became more frequent than before. IL-6, CRP and LDH values above 69 pg/mL, 97 mg/L and 328 U/L respectively, as well as a CD4 T-cell count below 535 cells/µL, were the best cut-offs predicting severity since these parameters offered reliable areas under the curve. CONCLUSION: Age and sex together with selected laboratory parameters on admission can help us predict COVID-19 severity and, therefore, make clinical and resource management decisions. Demographic features associated with lockdown might affect the homogeneity of the data and the robustness of the results.

10.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244348, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world has caused a global pandemic, infecting millions of individuals, with an unprecedented impact in health care systems worldwide. Healthcare workers are one of the risk groups that need to be well protected, due to their strategic role in patient management, presently and in prevention of healthcare needs for future outbreaks. Here, we present the results of the first SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study in the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed in serum samples from 7563 healthcare workers of the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Samples were collected after the first pandemic wave (from May 4th to May 22nd, 2020) and were analyzed by automated chemiluminescence assays. All samples were tested for IgG anti-S1/S2. Participant samples with negative or equivocal results but with analytical signals above the limit of detection and/or previously confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were also tested for IgG anti-Nucleocapsid. RESULTS: A total of 779 of 7563 (10.3%) healthcare workers were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (specific for either S1/S2 or N antigens). No significant differences were observed between those working at primary care or at the reference hospital. Interestingly, among 341 participants with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, 36 (10.55%) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG (both S1/S2 and recombinant N antigen). CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the healthcare workers of the North Metropolitan Area of Barcelona was higher than in the general population in the same geographical area. Safety measures have to be stressed in order to protect these essential workers from future pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain , Young Adult
11.
Immun Ageing ; 17: 22, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713587

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 infection has widely spread to become the greatest public health challenge to date, the COVID-19 pandemic. Different fatality rates among countries are probably due to non-standardized records being carried out by local health authorities. The Spanish case-fatality rate is 11.22%, far higher than those reported in Asia or by other European countries. A multicentre retrospective study of demographic, clinical, laboratory and immunological features of 584 Spanish COVID-19 hospitalized patients and their outcomes was performed. The use of renin-angiotensin system blockers was also analysed as a risk factor. RESULTS: In this study, 27.4% of cases presented a mild course, 42.1% a moderate one and for 30.5% of cases, the course was severe. Ages ranged from 18 to 98 (average 63). Almost 60 % (59.8%) of patients were male. Interleukin 6 was higher as severity increased. On the other hand, CD8 lymphocyte count was significantly lower as severity grew and subpopulations CD4, CD8, CD19, and NK showed concordant lowering trends. Severity-related natural killer percent descents were evidenced just within aged cases. A significant severity-related decrease of CD4 lymphocytes was found in males. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was associated with a better prognosis. The angiotensin II receptor blocker use was associated with a more severe course. CONCLUSIONS: Age and age-related comorbidities, such as dyslipidaemia, hypertension or diabetes, determined more frequent severe forms of the disease in this study than in previous literature cohorts. Our cases are older than those so far reported and the clinical course of the disease is found to be impaired by age. Immunosenescence might be therefore a suitable explanation for the hampering of immune system effectors. The adaptive immunity would become exhausted and a strong but ineffective and almost deleterious innate response would account for COVID-19 severity. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors used by hypertensive patients have a protective effect in regards to COVID-19 severity in our series. Conversely, patients on angiotensin II receptor blockers showed a severer disease.

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