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1.
Interv Neuroradiol ; : 15910199221093896, 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785091

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is emerging as an important biomarker of acute physiologic stress in a myriad of medical conditions, and is a confirmed poor prognostic indicator in COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the role of NLR in predicting poor outcome in COVID-19 patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy for acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: We analyzed NLR in COVID-19 patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes enrolled into an international 12-center retrospective study of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, consecutively admitted between March 1, 2020 and May 1, 2020. Increased NLR was defined as ≥7.2. Logistic regression models were generated. RESULTS: Incidence of LVO stroke was 38/6698 (.57%). Mean age of patients was 62 years (range 27-87), and mortality rate was 30%. Age, sex, and ethnicity were not predictive of mortality. Elevated NLR and poor vessel recanalization (Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score of 1 or 2a) synergistically predicted poor outcome (likelihood ratio 11.65, p = .003). Patients with NLR > 7.2 were 6.8 times more likely to die (OR 6.8, CI95% 1.2-38.6, p = .03) and almost 8 times more likely to require prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation (OR 7.8, CI95% 1.2-52.4, p = .03). In a multivariate analysis, NLR > 7.2 predicted poor outcome even when controlling for the effect of low TICI score on poor outcome (NLR p = .043, TICI p = .070). CONCLUSIONS: We show elevated NLR in LVO patients with COVID-19 portends significantly worse outcomes and increased mortality regardless of recanalization status. Severe neuro-inflammatory stress response related to COVID-19 may negate the potential benefits of successful thrombectomy.

2.
Neurosurgery ; 2022 Mar 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724730

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mechanisms and outcomes in coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated stroke are unique from those of non-COVID-19 stroke. OBJECTIVE: To describe the efficacy and outcomes of acute revascularization of large vessel occlusion (LVO) in the setting of COVID-19 in an international cohort. METHODS: We conducted an international multicenter retrospective study of consecutively admitted patients with COVID-19 with concomitant acute LVO across 50 comprehensive stroke centers. Our control group constituted historical controls of patients presenting with LVO and receiving a mechanical thrombectomy between January 2018 and December 2020. RESULTS: The total cohort was 575 patients with acute LVO; 194 patients had COVID-19 while 381 patients did not. Patients in the COVID-19 group were younger (62.5 vs 71.2; P < .001) and lacked vascular risk factors (49, 25.3% vs 54, 14.2%; P = .001). Modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 revascularization was less common in the COVID-19 group (74, 39.2% vs 252, 67.2%; P < .001). Poor functional outcome at discharge (defined as modified Ranklin Scale 3-6) was more common in the COVID-19 group (150, 79.8% vs 132, 66.7%; P = .004). COVID-19 was independently associated with a lower likelihood of achieving modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 3 (odds ratio [OR]: 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.7; P < .001) and unfavorable outcomes (OR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.5; P = .002). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 was an independent predictor of incomplete revascularization and poor outcomes in patients with stroke due to LVO. Patients with COVID-19 with LVO were younger, had fewer cerebrovascular risk factors, and suffered from higher morbidity/mortality rates.

4.
Brain Circ ; 7(2): 135-138, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261387

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 may suffer from hemorrhagic complications. Our article highlights two cases of COVID-19-infected patients, who suffered severe epistaxis after initiation of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) for acute ischemic stroke, followed by a sudden decline in their clinical status and ultimately leading to death within days. Given the global impact and mortality of COVID-19, it is essential to be aware of its unusual presentation and improve therapeutic strategies. We present two cases of individuals who suffered from a large vessel occlusion of and were candidates for both IV-rtPA and mechanical thrombectomy. They received IV-rtPA but had epistaxis so severe that they were not able to receive MT and died within the next few days. There are many potential mechanisms by which epistaxis can happen in an individual with COVID-19 who received IV-rtPA including invasion of the nasal mucosa and endothelium through angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptors by the virus. We also hypothesize that the coagulation abnormality seen in COVID-19 patients can be potentiated by the use of treatments such as IV-rtPA. We review these issues with a diagram illustrating the possible mechanisms.

5.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 205: 106655, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219629

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is rapidly transforming the healthcare system, with telemedicine, or virtual health, being one of the key drivers of the change. Smart glasses have recently been introduced to the public and have generated interest with healthcare professionals as demonstrated by their early adoption in clinics and hospitals. Observing procedures is essential for young interventionalist-in-training, but sometimes it is difficult for them to be able to get the volume of exposure to procedures that they need. Here, we report the first experience using smart glasses for Neurointerventional procedures, highlighting potential benefits and limitations during different scenarios including invitro and life cases. This field is novel, innovative, and may have potential to improve both patient care and patient safety in other health care settings.

6.
Int J Stroke ; 16(5): 573-584, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to profound changes in the organization of health care systems worldwide. AIMS: We sought to measure the global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the volumes for mechanical thrombectomy, stroke, and intracranial hemorrhage hospitalizations over a three-month period at the height of the pandemic (1 March-31 May 2020) compared with two control three-month periods (immediately preceding and one year prior). METHODS: Retrospective, observational, international study, across 6 continents, 40 countries, and 187 comprehensive stroke centers. The diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in stroke databases at participating centers. RESULTS: The hospitalization volumes for any stroke, intracranial hemorrhage, and mechanical thrombectomy were 26,699, 4002, and 5191 in the three months immediately before versus 21,576, 3540, and 4533 during the first three pandemic months, representing declines of 19.2% (95%CI, -19.7 to -18.7), 11.5% (95%CI, -12.6 to -10.6), and 12.7% (95%CI, -13.6 to -11.8), respectively. The decreases were noted across centers with high, mid, and low COVID-19 hospitalization burden, and also across high, mid, and low volume stroke/mechanical thrombectomy centers. High-volume COVID-19 centers (-20.5%) had greater declines in mechanical thrombectomy volumes than mid- (-10.1%) and low-volume (-8.7%) centers (p < 0.0001). There was a 1.5% stroke rate across 54,366 COVID-19 hospitalizations. SARS-CoV-2 infection was noted in 3.9% (784/20,250) of all stroke admissions. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of overall stroke hospitalizations, mechanical thrombectomy procedures, and intracranial hemorrhage admission volumes. Despite geographic variations, these volume reductions were observed regardless of COVID-19 hospitalization burden and pre-pandemic stroke/mechanical thrombectomy volumes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Global Health , Hospitalization/trends , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/trends , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals, High-Volume/trends , Hospitals, Low-Volume/trends , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Registries , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Time Factors
7.
Neurosurgery ; 89(1): E35-E41, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1139998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: While there are reports of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, the overall incidence of AIS and clinical characteristics of large vessel occlusion (LVO) remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To attempt to establish incidence of AIS in COVID-19 patients in an international cohort. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective, multicenter study of consecutive patients admitted with AIS and COVID-19 was undertaken from March 1 to May 1, 2020 at 12 stroke centers from 4 countries. Out of those 12 centers, 9 centers admitted all types of strokes and data from those were used to calculate the incidence rate of AIS. Three centers exclusively transferred LVO stroke (LVOs) patients and were excluded only for the purposes of calculating the incidence of AIS. Detailed data were collected on consecutive LVOs in hospitalized patients who underwent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) across all 12 centers. RESULTS: Out of 6698 COVID-19 patients admitted to 9 stroke centers, the incidence of stroke was found to be 1.3% (interquartile range [IQR] 0.75%-1.7%). The median age of LVOs patients was 51 yr (IQR 50-75 yr), and in the US centers, African Americans comprised 28% of patients. Out of 66 LVOs, 10 patients (16%) were less than 50 yr of age. Among the LVOs eligible for MT, the average time from symptom onset to presentation was 558 min (IQR 82-695 min). A total of 21 (50%) patients were either discharged to home or discharged to acute rehabilitation facilities. CONCLUSION: LVO was predominant in patients with AIS and COVID-19 across 2 continents, occurring at a significantly younger age and affecting African Americans disproportionately in the USA.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/diagnostic imaging , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ischemic Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Ischemic Stroke/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrovascular Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/therapy , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Incidence , Internationality , Ischemic Stroke/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Thrombectomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
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