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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5722, 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050376

ABSTRACT

Visceral adiposity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19, and a link between adipose tissue infection and disease progression has been proposed. Here we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infects human adipose tissue and undergoes productive infection in fat cells. However, susceptibility to infection and the cellular response depends on the anatomical origin of the cells and the viral lineage. Visceral fat cells express more ACE2 and are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than their subcutaneous counterparts. SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to inhibition of lipolysis in subcutaneous fat cells, while in visceral fat cells, it results in higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Viral load and cellular response are attenuated when visceral fat cells are infected with the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant. A similar degree of cell death occurs 4-days after SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of the cell origin or viral lineage. Hence, SARS-CoV-2 infects human fat cells, replicating and altering cell function and viability in a depot- and viral lineage-dependent fashion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adipose Tissue , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cytokines , Humans
2.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(35): e2200960119, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991765

ABSTRACT

Although increasing evidence confirms neuropsychiatric manifestations associated mainly with severe COVID-19 infection, long-term neuropsychiatric dysfunction (recently characterized as part of "long COVID-19" syndrome) has been frequently observed after mild infection. We show the spectrum of cerebral impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, ranging from long-term alterations in mildly infected individuals (orbitofrontal cortical atrophy, neurocognitive impairment, excessive fatigue and anxiety symptoms) to severe acute damage confirmed in brain tissue samples extracted from the orbitofrontal region (via endonasal transethmoidal access) from individuals who died of COVID-19. In an independent cohort of 26 individuals who died of COVID-19, we used histopathological signs of brain damage as a guide for possible SARS-CoV-2 brain infection and found that among the 5 individuals who exhibited those signs, all of them had genetic material of the virus in the brain. Brain tissue samples from these five patients also exhibited foci of SARS-CoV-2 infection and replication, particularly in astrocytes. Supporting the hypothesis of astrocyte infection, neural stem cell-derived human astrocytes in vitro are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection through a noncanonical mechanism that involves spike-NRP1 interaction. SARS-CoV-2-infected astrocytes manifested changes in energy metabolism and in key proteins and metabolites used to fuel neurons, as well as in the biogenesis of neurotransmitters. Moreover, human astrocyte infection elicits a secretory phenotype that reduces neuronal viability. Our data support the model in which SARS-CoV-2 reaches the brain, infects astrocytes, and consequently, leads to neuronal death or dysfunction. These deregulated processes could contribute to the structural and functional alterations seen in the brains of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Brain , COVID-19 , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases , SARS-CoV-2 , Astrocytes/pathology , Astrocytes/virology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/etiology , Central Nervous System Viral Diseases/pathology , Humans
3.
J Photochem Photobiol ; 8: 100072, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1446893

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is mainly transmitted by airborne droplets generated by infected individuals. Since this and many other pathogens are able to remain viable on inert surfaces for extended periods of time, contaminated surfaces play an important role in SARS-CoV-2 fomite transmission. Cosmetic products are destined to be applied on infection-sensitive sites, such as the lips and eyelids. Therefore, special biosafety precautions should be incorporated into the routine procedures of beauty parlors and shops. Indeed, innovative cosmetics companies are currently searching for disinfection protocols that ensure the customers' safety in makeup testing. Here, we propose an ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) strategy that can be used to reduce the odds of COVID-19 fomite transmission by makeup testers. It is well-known that UVGI effectively inactivates pathogens on flat surfaces and clear fluids. However, ultraviolet-C (UVC) radiation at 254 nm penetrates poorly in turbid and porous materials, such as makeup and lipstick formulations. Thus, we investigated the virucidal effect of UVGI against SARS-CoV-2 deposited on such substrates and compared their performance to that of flat polystyrene surfaces, used as controls. Concentrated infectious SARS-CoV-2 inoculum (106 PFU/mL) deposited on lipstick and makeup powder was completely inactivated (>5log10 reduction) following UVC exposures at 1,260 mJ/cm2, while flat plastic surfaces required 10 times less exposure (126 mJ/cm2) to reach the same microbicidal performance. We conclude that UVGI comprises an effective disinfection strategy to promote biosafety for cosmetics testers. However, appropriate UVC dosimetry must be implemented to overcome inefficiencies caused by the optical properties of turbid materials in lipsticks and makeup powders.

5.
Cell Metab ; 32(3): 437-446.e5, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670096

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes and macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF-1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/complications , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Female , Glycolysis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
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