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Front Immunol ; 13: 918896, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198845


Background: Effective and safe vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are critical to controlling the COVID-19 pandemic and will remain the most important tool in limiting the spread of the virus long after the pandemic is over. Methods: We bring pioneering contributions on the maintenance of the immune response over a year on a real-life basis study in 1,587 individuals (18-90 yrs, median 39 yrs; 1,208 female/379 male) who underwent vaccination with two doses of CoronaVac and BNT162b2 booster after 6-months of primary protocol. Findings: Elevated levels of anti-spike IgG antibodies were detected after CoronaVac vaccination, which significantly decreased after 80 days and remained stable until the introduction of the booster dose. Heterologous booster restored antibody titers up to-1·7-fold, changing overall seropositivity to 96%. Titers of neutralising antibodies to the Omicron variant were lower in all timepoints than those against Delta variant. Individuals presenting neutralising antibodies against Omicron also presented the highest titers against Delta and anti-Spike IgG. Cellular immune response measurement pointed out a mixed immune profile with a robust release of chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors on the first month after CoronaVac vaccination followed by a gradual reduction over time and no increase after the booster dose. A stronger interaction between those mediators was noted over time. Prior exposure to the virus leaded to a more robust cellular immune response and a rise in antibody levels 60 days post CoronaVac than in individuals with no previous COVID-19. Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated among individuals. Interpretation: Our data approach the effectiveness of CoronaVac association with BNT162b2 from the clinical and biological perspectives, aspects that have important implications for informing decisions about vaccine boosters. Funding: Fiocruz, Brazil.

COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Immunization, Secondary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine/immunology , Brazil , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Viruses ; 14(8)2022 07 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2024273


Annual vaccination against influenza is the best tool to prevent deaths and hospitalizations. Regular updates of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines (TIV) are necessary due to high mutation rates in influenza viruses. TIV effectiveness is affected by antigenic mismatches, age, previous immunity, and other host factors. Studying TIV effectiveness annually in different populations is critical. The serological responses to Southern-Hemisphere TIV and circulating influenza strains were evaluated in 2018-2020 among Brazilian volunteers, using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assays. Post-vaccination titers were corrected to account for pre-vaccination titers. Our population achieved >83% post-vaccination seroprotection levels, whereas seroconversion rates ranged from 10% to 46%. TIV significantly enhanced antibody titers and seroprotection against all prior and contemporary vaccine and circulating strains tested. Strong cross-reactive responses were detected, especially between H1N1 subtypes. A/Singapore/INFIMH-16-0019/2016, included in the 2018 TIV, induced the poorest response. Significant titer and seroprotection reductions were observed 6 and 12 months after vaccination. Age had a slight effect on TIV response, whereas previous vaccination was associated with lower seroconversion rates and titers. Despite this, TIV induced high seroprotection for all strains, in all groups. Regular TIV evaluations, based on regional influenza strain circulation, should be conducted and the factors affecting response studied.

Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Brazil/epidemiology , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Seasons , Vaccines, Inactivated
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262600, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622369


In patients with severe forms of COVID-19, thromboelastometry has been reported to display a hypercoagulant pattern. However, an algorithm to differentiate severe COVID-19 patients from nonsevere patients and healthy controls based on thromboelastometry parameters has not been developed. Forty-one patients over 18 years of age with positive qRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were classified according to the severity of the disease: nonsevere (NS, n = 20) or severe (S, n = 21). A healthy control (HC, n = 9) group was also examined. Blood samples from all participants were tested by extrinsic (EXTEM), intrinsic (INTEM), non-activated (NATEM) and functional assessment of fibrinogen (FIBTEM) assays of thromboelastometry. The thrombodynamic potential index (TPI) was also calculated. Severe COVID-19 patients exhibited a thromboelastometry profile with clear hypercoagulability, which was significantly different from the NS and HC groups. Nonsevere COVID-19 cases showed a trend to thrombotic pole. The NATEM test suggested that nonsevere and severe COVID-19 patients presented endogenous coagulation activation (reduced clotting time and clot formation time). TPI data were significantly different between the NS and S groups. The maximum clot firmness profile obtained by FIBTEM showed moderate/elevated accuracy to differentiate severe patients from NS and HC. A decision tree algorithm based on the FIBTEM-MCF profile was proposed to differentiate S from HC and NS. Thromboelastometric parameters are a useful tool to differentiate the coagulation profile of nonsevere and severe COVID-19 patients for therapeutic intervention purposes.

Blood Coagulation , COVID-19/blood , Thrombelastography , Thrombophilia/blood , Adult , Aged , Algorithms , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombophilia/diagnosis , Thrombophilia/etiology , Young Adult