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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 5722, 2022 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050376

ABSTRACT

Visceral adiposity is a risk factor for severe COVID-19, and a link between adipose tissue infection and disease progression has been proposed. Here we demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 infects human adipose tissue and undergoes productive infection in fat cells. However, susceptibility to infection and the cellular response depends on the anatomical origin of the cells and the viral lineage. Visceral fat cells express more ACE2 and are more susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection than their subcutaneous counterparts. SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to inhibition of lipolysis in subcutaneous fat cells, while in visceral fat cells, it results in higher expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Viral load and cellular response are attenuated when visceral fat cells are infected with the SARS-CoV-2 gamma variant. A similar degree of cell death occurs 4-days after SARS-CoV-2 infection, regardless of the cell origin or viral lineage. Hence, SARS-CoV-2 infects human fat cells, replicating and altering cell function and viability in a depot- and viral lineage-dependent fashion.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adipose Tissue , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cytokines , Humans
2.
J Neurochem ; 163(2): 113-132, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956772

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 causes more than million deaths worldwide. Although much is understood about the immunopathogenesis of the lung disease, a lot remains to be known on the neurological impact of COVID-19. Here, we evaluated immunometabolic changes using astrocytes in vitro and dissected brain areas of SARS-CoV-2 infected Syrian hamsters. We show that SARS-CoV-2 alters proteins of carbon metabolism, glycolysis, and synaptic transmission, many of which are altered in neurological diseases. Real-time respirometry evidenced hyperactivation of glycolysis, further confirmed by metabolomics, with intense consumption of glucose, pyruvate, glutamine, and alpha ketoglutarate. Consistent with glutamine reduction, the blockade of glutaminolysis impaired viral replication and inflammatory response in vitro. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in vivo in hippocampus, cortex, and olfactory bulb of intranasally infected animals. Our data evidence an imbalance in important metabolic molecules and neurotransmitters in infected astrocytes. We suggest this may correlate with the neurological impairment observed during COVID-19, as memory loss, confusion, and cognitive impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Astrocytes , Carbon , Cricetinae , Disease Models, Animal , Glucose , Glutamine , Ketoglutaric Acids , Mesocricetus , Pyruvates , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308653

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes/macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor- 1α (HIF - 1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF- 1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1 ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.

5.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-9, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069185

ABSTRACT

Microbiota-derived molecules called short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in the maintenance of the intestinal barrier and regulation of immune response during infectious conditions. Recent reports indicate that SARS-CoV-2 infection changes microbiota and SCFAs production. However, the relevance of this effect is unknown. In this study, we used human intestinal biopsies and intestinal epithelial cells to investigate the impact of SCFAs in the infection by SARS-CoV-2. SCFAs did not change the entry or replication of SARS-CoV-2 in intestinal cells. These metabolites had no effect on intestinal cells' permeability and presented only minor effects on the production of anti-viral and inflammatory mediators. Together our findings indicate that the changes in microbiota composition of patients with COVID-19 and, particularly, of SCFAs do not interfere with the SARS-CoV-2 infection in the intestine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Fatty Acids, Volatile/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestinal Mucosa/virology , Adult , Aged , Caco-2 Cells , Colon/virology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Female , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Load , Virus Internalization , Young Adult
7.
Cell Metab ; 32(3): 437-446.e5, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670096

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can result in severe lung injury. It remained to be determined why diabetic individuals with uncontrolled glucose levels are more prone to develop the severe form of COVID-19. The molecular mechanism underlying SARS-CoV-2 infection and what determines the onset of the cytokine storm found in severe COVID-19 patients are unknown. Monocytes and macrophages are the most enriched immune cell types in the lungs of COVID-19 patients and appear to have a central role in the pathogenicity of the disease. These cells adapt their metabolism upon infection and become highly glycolytic, which facilitates SARS-CoV-2 replication. The infection triggers mitochondrial ROS production, which induces stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and consequently promotes glycolysis. HIF-1α-induced changes in monocyte metabolism by SARS-CoV-2 infection directly inhibit T cell response and reduce epithelial cell survival. Targeting HIF-1ɑ may have great therapeutic potential for the development of novel drugs to treat COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Blood Glucose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Diabetes Complications/complications , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Monocytes/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Diabetes Complications/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus/metabolism , Female , Glycolysis , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
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