Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 14 de 14
Filter
1.
Sci Transl Med ; : eabo7081, 2022 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874494

ABSTRACT

Understanding the build-up of immunity with successive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants and the epidemiological conditions that favor rapidly expanding epidemics will help facilitate future pandemic control. We analyzed high-resolution infection and serology data from two longitudinal household cohorts in South Africa to reveal high cumulative infection rates and durable cross-protective immunity conferred by prior infection in the pre-Omicron era. Building on the history of past exposures to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccination in the more representative urban cohort given South Africa's high urbanization rate, we used mathematical models to explore the fitness advantage of the Omicron variant and its epidemic trajectory. Modelling suggests the Omicron wave likely infected a large fraction (44% - 81%) of the population, leaving a complex landscape of population immunity primed and boosted with antigenically distinct variants. We project that future SARS-CoV-2 resurgences are likely under a range of scenarios of viral characteristics, population contacts, and residual cross-protection.

2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(4): 507-518, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839425

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The WHO-recommended tuberculosis screening and diagnostic algorithm in ambulatory people living with HIV is a four-symptom screen (known as the WHO-recommended four symptom screen [W4SS]) followed by a WHO-recommended molecular rapid diagnostic test (eg Xpert MTB/RIF [hereafter referred to as Xpert]) if W4SS is positive. To inform updated WHO guidelines, we aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of alternative screening tests and strategies for tuberculosis in this population. METHODS: In this systematic review and individual participant data meta-analysis, we updated a search of PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase, the Cochrane Library, and conference abstracts for publications from Jan 1, 2011, to March 12, 2018, done in a previous systematic review to include the period up to Aug 2, 2019. We screened the reference lists of identified pieces and contacted experts in the field. We included prospective cross-sectional, observational studies and randomised trials among adult and adolescent (age ≥10 years) ambulatory people living with HIV, irrespective of signs and symptoms of tuberculosis. We extracted study-level data using a standardised data extraction form, and we requested individual participant data from study authors. We aimed to compare the W4SS with alternative screening tests and strategies and the WHO-recommended algorithm (ie, W4SS followed by Xpert) with Xpert for all in terms of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity), overall and in key subgroups (eg, by antiretroviral therapy [ART] status). The reference standard was culture. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020155895. FINDINGS: We identified 25 studies, and obtained data from 22 studies (including 15 666 participants; 4347 [27·7%] of 15 663 participants with data were on ART). W4SS sensitivity was 82% (95% CI 72-89) and specificity was 42% (29-57). C-reactive protein (≥10 mg/L) had similar sensitivity to (77% [61-88]), but higher specificity (74% [61-83]; n=3571) than, W4SS. Cough (lasting ≥2 weeks), haemoglobin (<10 g/dL), body-mass index (<18·5 kg/m2), and lymphadenopathy had high specificities (80-90%) but low sensitivities (29-43%). The WHO-recommended algorithm had a sensitivity of 58% (50-66) and a specificity of 99% (98-100); Xpert for all had a sensitivity of 68% (57-76) and a specificity of 99% (98-99). In the one study that assessed both, the sensitivity of sputum Xpert Ultra was higher than sputum Xpert (73% [62-81] vs 57% [47-67]) and specificities were similar (98% [96-98] vs 99% [98-100]). Among outpatients on ART (4309 [99·1%] of 4347 people on ART), W4SS sensitivity was 53% (35-71) and specificity was 71% (51-85). In this population, a parallel strategy (two tests done at the same time) of W4SS with any chest x-ray abnormality had higher sensitivity (89% [70-97]) and lower specificity (33% [17-54]; n=2670) than W4SS alone; at a tuberculosis prevalence of 5%, this strategy would require 379 more rapid diagnostic tests per 1000 people living with HIV than W4SS but detect 18 more tuberculosis cases. Among outpatients not on ART (11 160 [71·8%] of 15 541 outpatients), W4SS sensitivity was 85% (76-91) and specificity was 37% (25-51). C-reactive protein (≥10 mg/L) alone had a similar sensitivity to (83% [79-86]), but higher specificity (67% [60-73]; n=3187) than, W4SS and a sequential strategy (both test positive) of W4SS then C-reactive protein (≥5 mg/L) had a similar sensitivity to (84% [75-90]), but higher specificity than (64% [57-71]; n=3187), W4SS alone; at 10% tuberculosis prevalence, these strategies would require 272 and 244 fewer rapid diagnostic tests per 1000 people living with HIV than W4SS but miss two and one more tuberculosis cases, respectively. INTERPRETATION: C-reactive protein reduces the need for further rapid diagnostic tests without compromising sensitivity and has been included in the updated WHO tuberculosis screening guidelines. However, C-reactive protein data were scarce for outpatients on ART, necessitating future research regarding the utility of C-reactive protein in this group. Chest x-ray can be useful in outpatients on ART when combined with W4SS. The WHO-recommended algorithm has suboptimal sensitivity; Xpert for all offers slight sensitivity gains and would have major resource implications. FUNDING: World Health Organization.


Subject(s)
Antibiotics, Antitubercular , HIV Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary , Tuberculosis , Adolescent , Adult , Antibiotics, Antitubercular/therapeutic use , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Prospective Studies , Rifampin , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/diagnosis , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334144

ABSTRACT

Background In South Africa 19% of the adult population aged 15-49 years are living with HIV (LWH). Few data on the influence of HIV on SARS-CoV-2 household transmission are available. Methods We performed a case-ascertained, prospective household transmission study of symptomatic index SARS-CoV-2 cases LWH and HIV-uninfected adults and their contacts in South Africa. Households were followed up thrice weekly for 6 weeks to collect nasal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 testing. We estimated household cumulative infection risk (HCIR), duration of SARS-CoV-2 positivity (at cycle threshold value<30 as proxy for high viral load), and assessed associated factors. Results We recruited 131 index cases and 457 household contacts. HCIR was 59% (220/373);not differing by index HIV status (60% [50/83] in cases LWH vs 58% [173/293] in HIV-uninfected cases, OR 1.0, 95%CI 0.4-2.3). HCIR increased with index case age (35-59 years: aOR 3.4 95%CI 1.5-7.8 and ≥60 years: aOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.0-10.1) compared to 18-34 years, and contacts’ age, 13-17 years (aOR 7.1, 95%CI 1.5-33.9) and 18-34 years (aOR 4.4, 95%CI 1.0-18.4) compared to <5 years. Mean positivity duration at high viral load was 7 days (range 2-28), with longer positivity in cases LWH (aHR 0.3, 95%CI 0.1-0.7). Conclusions HIV-infection was not associated with higher HCIR, but cases LWH had longer positivity duration at high viral load. Adults aged >35 years were more likely to transmit, and individuals aged 13-34 to acquire SARS-CoV-2 in the household. Health services must maintain HIV testing with initiation of antiretroviral therapy for those HIV-infected. Summary In this case-ascertained, prospective household transmission study, household cumulative infection risk was 59% from symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 index cases, not differing based on index HIV status. Index cases living with HIV were positive for SARS-CoV-2 for longer at higher viral loads.

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(5): 1055-1058, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760190

ABSTRACT

By November 2021, after the third wave of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infections in South Africa, seroprevalence was 60% in a rural community and 70% in an urban community. High seroprevalence before the Omicron variant emerged may have contributed to reduced illness severity observed in the fourth wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(6): 603-622, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1758001

ABSTRACT

The global tuberculosis burden remains substantial, with more than 10 million people newly ill per year. Nevertheless, tuberculosis incidence has slowly declined over the past decade, and mortality has decreased by almost a third in tandem. This positive trend was abruptly reversed by the COVID-19 pandemic, which in many parts of the world has resulted in a substantial reduction in tuberculosis testing and case notifications, with an associated increase in mortality, taking global tuberculosis control back by roughly 10 years. Here, we consider points of intersection between the tuberculosis and COVID-19 pandemics, identifying wide-ranging approaches that could be taken to reverse the devastating effects of COVID-19 on tuberculosis control. We review the impact of COVID-19 at the population level on tuberculosis case detection, morbidity and mortality, and the patient-level impact, including susceptibility to disease, clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, and prognosis. We propose strategies to reverse or mitigate the deleterious effects of COVID-19 and restore tuberculosis services. Finally, we highlight research priorities and major challenges and controversies that need to be addressed to restore and advance the global response to tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/therapy
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(6): 821-834, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1740327

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: By August, 2021, South Africa had been affected by three waves of SARS-CoV-2; the second associated with the beta variant and the third with the delta variant. Data on SARS-CoV-2 burden, transmission, and asymptomatic infections from Africa are scarce. We aimed to evaluate SARS-CoV-2 burden and transmission in one rural and one urban community in South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of households in Agincourt, Mpumalanga province (rural site) and Klerksdorp, North West province (urban site) from July, 2020 to August, 2021. We randomly selected households for the rural site from a health and sociodemographic surveillance system and for the urban site using GPS coordinates. Households with more than two members and where at least 75% of members consented to participate were eligible. Midturbinate nasal swabs were collected twice a week from household members irrespective of symptoms and tested for SARS-CoV-2 using real-time RT-PCR (RT-rtPCR). Serum was collected every 2 months and tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Main outcomes were the cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, frequency of reinfection, symptomatic fraction (percent of infected individuals with ≥1 symptom), the duration of viral RNA shedding (number of days of SARS-CoV-2 RT-rtPCR positivity), and the household cumulative infection risk (HCIR; number of infected household contacts divided by the number of susceptible household members). FINDINGS: 222 households (114 at the rural site and 108 at the urban site), and 1200 household members (643 at the rural site and 557 at the urban site) were included in the analysis. For 115 759 nasal specimens from 1200 household members (follow-up 92·5%), 1976 (1·7%) were SARS-CoV-2-positive on RT-rtPCR. By RT-rtPCR and serology combined, 749 of 1200 individuals (62·4% [95% CI 58·1-66·4]) had at least one SARS-CoV-2 infection episode, and 87 of 749 (11·6% [9·4-14·2]) were reinfected. The mean infection episode duration was 11·6 days (SD 9·0; range 4-137). Of 662 RT-rtPCR-confirmed episodes (>14 days after the start of follow-up) with available data, 97 (14·7% [11·9-17·9]) were symptomatic with at least one symptom (in individuals aged <19 years, 28 [7·5%] of 373 episodes symptomatic; in individuals aged ≥19 years, 69 [23·9%] of 289 episodes symptomatic). Among 222 households, 200 (90·1% [85·3-93·7]) had at least one SARS-CoV-2-positive individual on RT-rtPCR or serology. HCIR overall was 23·9% (195 of 817 susceptible household members infected [95% CI 19·8-28·4]). HCIR was 23·3% (20 of 86) for symptomatic index cases and 23·9% (175 of 731) for asymptomatic index cases (univariate odds ratio [OR] 1·0 [95% CI 0·5-2·0]). On multivariable analysis, accounting for age and sex, low minimum cycle threshold value (≤30 vs >30) of the index case (OR 5·3 [2·3-12·4]) and beta and delta variant infection (vs Wuhan-Hu-1, OR 3·3 [1·4-8·2] and 10·4 [4·1-26·7], respectively) were associated with increased HCIR. People living with HIV who were not virally supressed (≥400 viral load copies per mL) were more likely to develop symptomatic illness when infected with SAR-CoV-2 (OR 3·3 [1·3-8·4]), and shed SARS-CoV-2 for longer (hazard ratio 0·4 [95% CI 0·3-0·6]) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. INTERPRETATION: In this study, 565 (85·3%) SARS-CoV-2 infections were asymptomatic and index case symptom status did not affect HCIR, suggesting a limited role for control measures targeting symptomatic individuals. Increased household transmission of beta and delta variants was likely to have contributed to successive waves of SARS-CoV-2 infection, with more than 60% of individuals infected by the end of follow-up. FUNDING: US CDC, South Africa National Institute for Communicable Diseases, and Wellcome Trust.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Humans , Incidence , Prospective Studies , Reinfection , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735548

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Seroprevalence studies are important for quantifying the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections in resource-constrained countries. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional household survey spanning the second pandemic wave (November 2020 - April 2021) in three communities. Blood was collected for SARS-CoV-2 antibody (two ELISA assays targeting spike and nucleocapsid) and HIV testing. An individual was considered seropositive if testing positive on ≥1 assay. Factors associated with infection, and the age-standardised infection to case detection rate (ICR), infection hospitalisation rate (IHR) and infection fatality rate (IFR) were calculated. RESULTS: Overall 7959 participants were enrolled, with a median age of 34 years and HIV prevalence of 22.7%. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 45.2% (95% confidence interval 43.7% - 46.7%), and increased from 26.9% among individuals enrolled in December 2020 to 47.1% among individuals in April 2021. On multivariable analysis, seropositivity was associated with age, sex, race, being overweight/obese, having respiratory symptoms, and low socioeconomic status. Persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) with high viral load were less likely to be seropositive compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. The site-specific ICR, IHR and IFR ranged across sites from 4.4% to 8.2%, 1.2% to 2.5% and 0.3% to 0.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: South Africa has experienced a large burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with <10% of infections diagnosed. Lower seroprevalence among non-virally suppressed PLWHIV, likely as a result of inadequate antibody production, highlights the need to prioritise this group for intervention.

8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327638

ABSTRACT

Understanding the build-up of immunity with successive SARS-CoV-2 variants and the epidemiological conditions that favor rapidly expanding epidemics will facilitate future pandemic control. High-resolution infection and serology data from longitudinal household cohorts in South Africa reveal high cumulative infection rates and durable cross-protective immunity conferred by prior infection in the pre-Omicron era. Building on the cohort's history of past exposures to different SARS-CoV-2 variants and vaccination, we use mathematical models to explore the fitness advantage of the Omicron variant and its epidemic trajectory. Modelling suggests the Omicron wave infected a large fraction of the population, leaving a complex landscape of population immunity primed and boosted with antigenically distinct variants. Future SARS-CoV-2 resurgences are likely under a range of scenarios of viral characteristics, population contacts, and residual cross-protection.

9.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327607

ABSTRACT

By November 2021, after the third SARS-CoV-2 wave in South Africa, seroprevalence was 60% (95%CrI 56%-64%) in a rural and 70% (95%CrI 56%-64%) in an urban community;highest in individuals aged 13-18 years. High seroprevalence prior to Omicron emergence may have contributed to reduced severity observed in the 4th wave.

10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3020-3029, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556378

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections may be underestimated because of limited access to testing. We measured SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in South Africa every 2 months during July 2020-March 2021 in randomly selected household cohorts in 2 communities. We compared seroprevalence to reported laboratory-confirmed infections, hospitalizations, and deaths to calculate infection-case, infection-hospitalization, and infection-fatality ratios in 2 waves of infection. Post-second wave seroprevalence ranged from 18% in the rural community children <5 years of age, to 59% in urban community adults 35-59 years of age. The second wave saw a shift in age distribution of case-patients in the urban community (from persons 35-59 years of age to persons at the extremes of age), higher attack rates in the rural community, and a higher infection-fatality ratio in the urban community. Approximately 95% of SARS-CoV-2 infections were not reported to national surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Child , Humans , Middle Aged , Rural Population , Seroepidemiologic Studies , South Africa/epidemiology
11.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296323

ABSTRACT

Background: Seroprevalence studies are important for quantifying the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections in resource-constrained countries.<br><br>Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional household survey spanning the second pandemic wave (November 2020 – April 2021) in three communities. Blood was collected for SARS-CoV-2 antibody (two ELISA assays targeting spike and nucleocapsid) and HIV testing. An individual was considered seropositive if testing positive on ≥1 assay. Factors associated with infection, and the age-standardised infection to case detection rate (ICR), infection hospitalisation rate (IHR) and infection fatality rate (IFR) were calculated.<br><br>Findings: Overall 7959 participants were enrolled, with a median age of 34 years and HIV prevalence of 22.7%. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was 45.2% (95% confidence interval 43.7% - 46.7%), and increased from 26.9% among individuals enrolled in December 2020 to 47.1% among individuals in April 2021. On multivariable analysis, seropositivity was associated with age, sex, race, being overweight/obese, having respiratory symptoms, and low socioeconomic status. Persons living with HIV (PLWH) with high viral load were less likely to be seropositive compared to HIV-uninfected individuals. The site-specific ICR, IHR and IFR ranged across sites from 4.4% to 8.2%, 1.2% to 2.5% and 0.3% to 0.6%, respectively.<br><br>Interpretation: South Africa has experienced a large burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections, with <10% of infections diagnosed. Lower seroprevalence among non-virally suppressed PLWH, likely as a result of inadequate antibody production, highlights the need to prioritise this group for intervention.<br><br>Funding Information: This study was supported by the South African MRC, Wellcome Trust and UK Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office, and US CDC.<br><br>Declaration of Interests: C. Cohen has received grant support from Sanofi Pasteur, Advanced Vaccine Initiative, and payment of travel costs from Parexel. NW and AvG have received grant support from Sanofi Pasteur. All other authors declare no conflict of interest.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the University of the Witwatersrand (M200861) and by the respective community and provincial research committees.<br><br>

12.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108824, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1482503

ABSTRACT

The current intersection of the COVID-19 and HIV-1 pandemics, has raised concerns about the risk for poor COVID-19 outcomes particularly in regions like sub-Saharan Africa, disproportionally affected by HIV. DPP4/CD26 has been suggested to be a potential therapeutic target and a biomarker for risk in COVID-19 patients with high risk co-morbidities. We therefore evaluated soluble DPP4 (sDPP4) levels and activity in plasma of 131 HIV-infected and 20 HIV-uninfected South African individuals. Flow cytometry was performed to compare cell surface expression of DPP4/CD26 and activation markers on peripheral blood mononuclear cells of extreme clinical phenotypes. Progressors had lower specific DPP4 activity and lower frequency of CD3+ T-cells expressing CD26 than HIV-1 controllers, but more activated CD3+CD26+ T-cells. The frequency of CD26-expressing T-cells negatively correlated with HLA-DR+ and CD38+ T-cells. Divergent DPP4/CD26 expression between HIV-1 controllers and progressors may have implications for risk and treatment of COVID-19 in people living with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4/metabolism , HIV Infections/complications , HIV-1 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Case-Control Studies , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Susceptibility , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , South Africa , Viral Load , Young Adult
13.
One Health ; 13: 100319, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human-to-animal transmission of M. tuberculosis (Mtb) is reported in South Africa but there is a paucity of epidemiological data. The aim of this One Health manuscript is to describe zooanthroponotic exposure of domestic animals to TB patients, virtually all of whom had laboratory confirmed pulmonary Mtb disease. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was nested within two TB contact tracing studies and collected data from 2017 to 2019. TB index patients and their households in three provinces of South Africa were recruited. A questionnaire was administered to households, assessing type and number of animals owned, degree of exposure of animals to humans, and veterinary consultations. For this analysis, we compared descriptive variables by animal-keeping status (animal-keeping vs non-animal keeping households), calculated the chi square and respective p-values. RESULTS: We visited 1766 households with at least one confirmed case of TB, 33% (587/1766) had livestock or companion animals. Of non-animal-owning households, 2% (27/1161) cared for other community members' livestock. Few (16%, 92/587) households kept animals in their dwelling overnight, while 45% (266/587) kept animals outside the home, but within 10 m of where people slept and ate. Most (81%, 478/587) of people in animal-owning households were willing for their animal/s to have a TB skin test, but <1% (5/587) of animals had been skin-tested; 4% (24/587) of animal-owning households had a veterinary consultation in the past six months, and 5% (31/587) reported one of their animals dying from natural causes in the prior six months. CONCLUSION: Our survey suggests that a high proportion of patients with TB live in settings facilitating close contact with domestic animal species with known susceptibility to Mtb. There is a substantial exposure of household animals to patients with TB and therefore risk of both transmission to, and spillback from animals to humans.

14.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 15(6): 789-803, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322743

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The PHIRST study (Prospective Household cohort study of Influenza, Respiratory Syncytial virus, and other respiratory pathogens community burden and Transmission dynamics in South Africa) aimed to estimate the community burden of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) including the incidence of infection, symptomatic fraction, and to assess household transmission. PARTICIPANTS: We enrolled 1684 individuals in 327 randomly selected households in a rural and an urban site over three consecutive influenza and two RSV seasons. A new cohort of households was enrolled each year. Participants were sampled with nasopharyngeal swabs twice-weekly during the RSV and influenza seasons of the year of enrolment. Serology samples were collected at enrolment and before and after the influenza season annually. FINDINGS TO DATE: There were 122 113 potential individual follow-up visits over the 3 years, and participants were interviewed for 105 783 (87%) of these. Out of 105 683 nasopharyngeal swabs, 1258 (1%) and 1026 (1%) tested positive on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for influenza viruses and RSV, respectively. Over one third of individuals had PCR-confirmed influenza each year. Overall, there was influenza transmission to 10% of household contacts of an index case. FUTURE PLANS: Future planned analyses include analysis of influenza serology results and RSV burden and transmission. Households enrolled in the PHIRST study during 2016-2018 were eligible for inclusion in a study of SARS-CoV-2 transmission initiated in July 2020. This study uses similar testing frequency to assess the community burden of SARS-CoV-2 infection and the role of asymptomatic infection in virus transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Cohort Studies , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , South Africa/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL