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Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica ; 67(4):559-560, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20244679


Background: COVID-19 has been associated with cerebral microbleeds (CMB). Previously, an association of ApoE4 with COVID-19 severity and CMBs in autopsy was found. In this study, we investigated if carrying the Apoe4 allele relates to the number of CMBs in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients recovered from COVID-19. Material(s) and Method(s): Adult patients recovered from COVID-19 and a control group without a history of COVID-19 was recruited. Exclusion criteria were major neurologic disease, developmental disability or pregnancy. The participants underwent brain MRI 6 months after infection, and a blinded neuroradiologist analyzed the findings. ApoE was genotyped using a microarray. Statistical analysis was performed using the statistical software R. A negative binomial model was chosen based on the distribution of CMBs. Result(s): Of the 216 subjects that underwent MRI, 168 consented to genetic testing, additionally 2 patients were excluded due to extensive CMBs and 1 due to diffuse axonal injury. We included 113 COVID-19 patients (49 ICU-treated, 29 ward-treated and 35 home-isolated) and 52 controls. The most prevalent comorbidities were hypertension, asthma and diabetes. CMBs was found in 47 subjects, with the number of CMBs ranging from 0 to 26. The ApoeE4 allele was carried by 37%, equally distributed among the groups. After adjustment, age (aRR = 1.06, p = 0.007) and COVID-19 (aRR = 2.59, p = 0.038) were independently associated with CMBs. The ApoE4 allele (aRR = 2.16, p = 0.07, CI = 0.94-5.10) was not significant. Conclusion(s): Age and previous COVID-19, but not possession of the ApoeE4 allele, were independently associated with the number of CMBs.

Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica ; 67(4):550-551, 2023.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-20240792


Background: We aimed to report long-term brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in survivors of ICU-treated COVID-19 compared to other groups. Material(s) and Method(s): In this prospective cohort study 70 ICU-treated, 46 ward-treated and 46 home-isolated patients, diagnosed with COVID-19 in 2020, underwent brain MRI 6 months after the acute phase to determine the presence of cerebral microbleeds (CMB) and Fazekas scale. Result(s): CMBs existed in 27 (38.6%) ICU-treated, 13 (28.3%) ward-treated, 8 (17.4%) home-isolated COVID-19 patients, and in 12 (22.6%) non-COVID controls (Figure 1). The number of CMBs in COVID-19 patients and controls was median 2 (IQR 1-4) and 1 (IQR 1-2), respectively. Patients with CMBs differed from those without, regarding age (median 62 vs. 52 years, p < 0.001), history of arterial hypertension (50% vs. 31%, p = 0.03), need of ICU (56% vs. 38%, p = 0.03) and ventilator treatment (42% vs. 22%, p = 0.01), length of hospital stay (median 21 vs. 12 days, p < 0.001), and supplementary oxygen therapy (median 18 vs. 10 days, p = 0.008), respectively. Within the ICU group, patients with and without CMBs differed regarding the duration of ICU stay (median 17 vs. 9 days, p = 0.006), and mechanical ventilation (median 14 vs. 6 days, p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, only age was associated with CMBs (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.09). The majority of subjects in all groups had Fazekas scale one for white matter hyperintensities (Figure 1). Conclusion(s): Although the severity of respiratory failure and history of arterial hypertension were associated with the presence of CMBs, only age was an independent predictor of CMBs.