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1.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1534179

ABSTRACT

In the last decade, the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has significantly increased [...].

2.
Artif Organs ; 45(12): 1466-1476, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526347

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe cases requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Together with supportive therapies (ventilation in particular), the suppression of the pro-inflammatory state has been a hypothesized target. Pharmacological therapies with corticosteroids and interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antagonists have reduced mortality. The use of extracorporeal cytokine removal, also known as hemoperfusion (HP), could be a promising non-pharmacological approach to decrease the pro-inflammatory state in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of PubMed and EMBASE databases in order to summarize the evidence regarding HP therapy in COVID-19. We included original studies and case series enrolling at least five patients. RESULTS: We included 11 articles and describe the characteristics of the populations studied from both clinical and biological perspectives. The methodological quality of the included studies was generally low. Only two studies had a control group, one of which included 101 patients in total. The remaining studies had a range between 10 and 50 patients included. There was large variability in the HP techniques implemented and in clinical and biological outcomes reported. Most studies described decreasing levels of IL-6 after HP treatment. CONCLUSION: Our review does not support strong conclusions regarding the role of HP in COVID-19. Considering the very low level of clinical evidence detected, starting HP therapies in COVID-19 patients does not seem supported outside of clinical trials. Prospective randomized data are needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokines/blood , Hemoperfusion , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Hemoperfusion/adverse effects , Hemoperfusion/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , Treatment Outcome
4.
Applied Sciences ; 11(20):9704, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1470784

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic changed the management of emergency medicine and those complications that needed interventional procedures, such as endoscopy or other radiological procedures. At the beginning of the outbreak, there were no exploitable recommendations regarding the proper policy to apply for limiting the virus spread during endoscopy. Between the first and the second wave, the approach regarding interventional procedures changed, due to higher awareness and newly defined protocols, even if different among the health centers. Patients with severe COVID-19 may develop major gastrointestinal complications or require nutritional support, so interventional procedures are required at bedside, even if patients are in isolated rooms. Our tertiary center admitted 95 patients with severe COVID-19 at our ICU-dedicated department until May 2021, and 56% of them died. Among them, 61 endoscopic procedures were performed, mainly gastroscopies (81.96%) followed by colonoscopies (11.47%) and other more advanced procedures (6.55%). Our approach aimed to adapt and create COVID-related protocols, dedicated itineraries, and rooms in a separate department with the prospect to easily organize complete and safe endoscopic theaters at the COVID-ICU department.

5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 238, 2021 07 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300260

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Current practices regarding tracheostomy in patients treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for acute respiratory distress syndrome are unknown. Our objectives were to assess the prevalence and the association between the timing of tracheostomy (during or after ECMO weaning) and related complications, sedative, and analgesic use. METHODS: International, multicenter, retrospective study in four large volume ECMO centers during a 9-year period. RESULTS: Of the 1,168 patients treated with ECMO for severe ARDS (age 48 ± 16 years, 76% male, SAPS II score 51 ± 18) during the enrollment period, 353 (30%) and 177 (15%) underwent tracheostomy placement during or after ECMO, respectively. Severe complications were uncommon in both groups. Local bleeding within 24 h of tracheostomy was four times more frequent during ECMO (25 vs 7% after ECMO, p < 0.01). Cumulative sedative consumption decreased more rapidly after the procedure with sedative doses almost negligible 48-72 h later, when tracheostomy was performed after ECMO decannulation (p < 0.01). A significantly increased level of consciousness was observed within 72 h after tracheostomy in the "after ECMO" group, whereas it was unchanged in the "during-ECMO" group. CONCLUSION: In contrast to patients undergoing tracheostomy after ECMO decannulation, tracheostomy during ECMO was neither associated with a decrease in sedation and analgesia levels nor with an increase in the level of consciousness. This finding together with a higher risk of local bleeding in the days following the procedure reinforces the need for a case-by-case discussion on the balance between risks and benefits of tracheotomy when performed during ECMO.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Tracheostomy/methods , Adult , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/statistics & numerical data , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Internationality , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Simplified Acute Physiology Score , Tracheostomy/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
6.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1288953

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 creates an impressive burden for intensive care units in terms of need for advanced respiratory care, with a huge number of acute respiratory distress syndromes (ARDS) requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. In some cases, this proves to be insufficient, with a refractory respiratory failure calling for an extracorporeal approach (veno-venous ECMO). In this scenario, most of these patients need an early tracheostomy procedure to be carried out, which creates the risk of distribution of aerosol particles, possibly leading to personnel infection. The use of apneic tracheostomy has been proposed for COVID-19 patients, but in case of ECMO it may produce lung derecruitment, severe hypoxemia, and sudden worsening of respiratory mechanics. We developed an apneic tracheostomy technique and applied it in over 32 patients supported by veno-venous ECMO. We present data showing the safety and feasibility of this technique in terms of patient care and personnel protection. Gas exchange and pH did not show statistically significant changes after the tracheostomy, nor did respiratory mechanics data or the need for inspiratory pressure and FiO2. The use of apneic tracheostomy was a safe option for patient care during ECMO and reduced the possibility of virus spreading.

7.
Curr Opin Crit Care ; 27(4): 378-384, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286614

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the recent evidence on the role of vitamin D deficiency in critically ill patients and emerging data claiming a role of vitamin D in COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin D is a strong predictor for worse outcomes in critically ill patients, and as well in COVID-19. The vitamin D content in typical nutrition regimes is lower than what is recommended for the general population. Although its supplementation has been shown to reduce respiratory tract infections, asthma exacerbations and mortality risk in noncritically ill patients, its role in the acute setting is not yet clear. Several small intervention trials have shown interesting results in COVID-19, and larger studies are ongoing. SUMMARY: Although research on this topic is still ongoing, it appears reasonable to recommend at least the standard vitamin dose for the healthy population (600--800 IU of native vitamin D3). Many questions remain on the actual role, the best metabolite, regime, and so forth. However, the role for vitamin D in bone health is clear. Elderly ICU survivors have a high risk for osteoporosis/fractures, so at least in this population, an optimal vitamin D status should be targeted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Aged , Critical Care , Dietary Supplements , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamins/therapeutic use
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(5)2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201863

ABSTRACT

Sepsis remains the leading cause of mortality in hospitalized patients, contributing to 1 in every 2-3 deaths. From a pathophysiological view, in the recent definition, sepsis has been defined as the result of a complex interaction between host response and the infecting organism, resulting in life-threatening organ dysfunction, depending on microcirculatory derangement, cellular hypoxia/dysoxia driven by hypotension and, potentially, death. The high energy expenditure driven by a high metabolic state induced by the host response may rapidly lead to micronutrient depletion. This deficiency can result in alterations in normal energy homeostasis, free radical damage, and immune system derangement. In critically ill patients, micronutrients are still relegated to an ancillary role in the whole treatment, and always put in a second-line place or, frequently, neglected. Only some micronutrients have attracted the attention of a wider audience, and some trials, even large ones, have tested their use, with controversial results. The present review will address this topic, including the recent advancement in the study of vitamin D and protocols based on vitamin C and other micronutrients, to explore an update in the setting of sepsis, gain some new insights applicable to COVID-19 patients, and to contribute to a pathophysiological definition of the potential role of micronutrients that will be helpful in future dedicated trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sepsis , Humans , Microcirculation , Micronutrients , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Membranes (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148306

ABSTRACT

The retrieval and transport of patients from peripheral hospitals to high volume extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers aims to reduce complications and improve survival. In Sicily (Italy), our institute houses a mobile ECMO team that serves a population of around 10 million people for a vast area in southern Italy and Malta. This observational, descriptive study includes all patients that required veno-venous (V-V) ECMO and transport by a mobile team between October 2009 and May 2020. Linear and multiple logistic regressions were applied to explore the risk factors for mortality in the ICU. Kaplan-Meier estimates were generated to predict the survival in patients transported by helicopter or ambulance, and the two cohorts were compared according to their baseline characteristics. Of 122 patients transported, 89 (73%) survived to ICU discharge (50 (41%) patients were transported by ambulance, and 72 (59%) were transported by helicopter). Independent predictive factors associated with mortality in a stepwise multiple regression model were prone positioning, acute kidney injury, and the number of days spent on mechanical ventilation (MV). Kaplan-Meier estimates for survival favored the helicopter cohort (79%) rather than the ambulance cohort (64%). Patients transported by helicopter had better pre-ECMO profiles, with shorter hospital and ICU stays, a shorter duration of MV use, and higher RESP scores, which indicate better survival probabilities. ECMO transport can be carried out safely over long distances; in rural areas with underdeveloped roads, transportation via helicopter or ambulance can extend the arm of the hospital to remote areas. Early ECMO initiation can be crucial in improving survival outcomes, and when transportation is the limiting factor to starting ECMO support, it should be attempted at the earliest logistical stage possible.

10.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 205, 2020 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-209589

ABSTRACT

Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has presently become a rapidly spreading and devastating global pandemic. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) may serve as life-saving rescue therapy for refractory respiratory failure in the setting of acute respiratory compromise such as that induced by SARS-CoV-2. While still little is known on the true efficacy of ECMO in this setting, the natural resemblance of seasonal influenza's characteristics with respect to acute onset, initial symptoms, and some complications prompt to ECMO implantation in most severe, pulmonary decompensated patients. The present review summarizes the evidence on ECMO management of severe ARDS in light of recent COVID-19 pandemic, at the same time focusing on differences and similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and ECMO in terms of hematological and inflammatory interplay when these two settings merge.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Blood Coagulation , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/blood , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/therapy , Thrombocytopenia
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