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1.
Journal of family medicine and primary care ; 11(8):4168-4173, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2102629

ABSTRACT

End-of-life medical services in the form of Hospice or Palliative care were initiated in the middle of 1900 in order to comfort the dying patients and support their families. There are a lot of similarities and differences between the two services. Many healthcare providers, including physicians, physician assistants, and nurses, are not fully trained or have comprehensive knowledge of these two types of end-of-life medical care. Through this paper, we aim to provide a thorough review of Hospice and Palliative care for internist and primary care physicians both in terms of indications or eligibility criteria;the similarities and differences between the two types of care;factors that disqualify an enrolled patient;and lastly, the role or use of Hospice and palliative care during COVID-19 pandemic.

2.
Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis ; 2022: 9119930, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1896087

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) present with various clinical presentations with majority of them developing pulmonary complications. This study focuses on cardiac implications of COVID-19 which are less discussed and thus will help to address cardiac implications of COVID-19. Methods: PubMed, PubMed Central, and Google Scholar were screened for articles which mentioned cardiac implications of COVID-19. NHLBI Study Quality Assessment Tools for the observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used for assessing the risk of bias of our studies. Results: All 14 studies selected were good and had score of ≥9 by NHLBI Study Quality Assessment Tools. Cardiac complications of COVID-19 are common. They are associated with significant mortality. Also, people infected with COVID-19 with premorbid conditions such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus have poor prognosis as compared to those without premorbid conditions. Cardiac biomarkers such as highly sensitive troponin I, creatinine, and creatinine kinase-MB on admission are good prognostic markers. Conclusions: Cardiac complications such as heart failure, myocardial injury, and arrhythmias are common among patients infected with COVID-19. Elevated cardiac markers and patients with cardiac complications require utmost care and continuous cardiac monitoring.

3.
Gene ; 836: 146674, 2022 Aug 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885774

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is associated with several risk factors such as distinct ethnicities (genetic ancestry), races, sexes, age, pre-existing comorbidities, smoking, and genetics. The authors aim to evaluate the correlation between variability in the host genetics and the severity and susceptibility towards COVID-19 in this study. METHODS: Following the PRISMA guidelines, we retrieved all the relevant articles published until September 15, 2021, from two online databases: PubMed and Scopus. FINDINGS: High-risk HLA haplotypes, higher expression of ACE polymorphisms, and several genes of cellular proteases such as TMPRSS2, FURIN, TLL-1 increase the risk of susceptibility and severity of COVID-19. In addition, upregulation of several genes encoding for both innate and acquired immune systems proteins, mainly CCR5, IFNs, TLR, DPPs, and TNF, positively correlate with COVID-19 severity. However, reduced expression or polymorphisms in genes affecting TLR and IFNλ increase COVID-19 severity. CONCLUSION: Higher expression, polymorphisms, mutations, and deletions of several genes are linked with the susceptibility, severity, and clinical outcomes of COVID-19. Early treatment and vaccination of individuals with genetic predisposition could help minimize the severity and mortality associated with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Haplotypes , Humans , Polymorphism, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Cureus ; 14(3): e22770, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776622

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions worldwide with a high mortality rate due to a lack of definitive treatment. Despite having a wide range of clinical features, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) has emerged as the primary cause of mortality in these patients. Risk factors and comorbidities like advanced age with limited lung function, pre-existing diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity have increased the risk for severe COVID-19 infection. Rise in inflammatory markers like transforming growth factor ß (TGF-ß), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and expression of matrix metalloproteinase 1 and 7 (MMP-1, MMP-7), along with collagen deposition at the site of lung injury, results in extensive lung scarring and fibrosis. Anti-fibrotic drugs, such as Pirfenidone and Nintedanib, have emerged as potential treatment options for post-COVID-19 pulmonary fibrosis. A lung transplant might be the only life-saving treatment. Despite the current advances in the management of COVID-19, there is still a considerable knowledge gap in the management of long-term sequelae in such patients, especially concerning pulmonary fibrosis. Follow up on the current clinical trials and research to test the efficacy of various anti-inflammatory drugs is needed to prevent long-term sequelae early mortality in these patients.

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