Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 2 de 2
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e053122, 2022 04 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794501


INTRODUCTION: There is an urgent need to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), particularly in low-and middle-income countries, where the greatest burden lies. Yet, there is little research concerning the specific issues involved in scaling up NCD interventions targeting low-resource settings. We propose to examine this gap in up to 27 collaborative projects, which were funded by the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) 2019 Scale Up Call, reflecting a total funding investment of approximately US$50 million. These projects represent diverse countries, contexts and adopt varied approaches and study designs to scale-up complex, evidence-based interventions to improve hypertension and diabetes outcomes. A systematic inquiry of these projects will provide necessary scientific insights into the enablers and challenges in the scale up of complex NCD interventions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will apply systems thinking (a holistic approach to analyse the inter-relationship between constituent parts of scaleup interventions and the context in which the interventions are implemented) and adopt a longitudinal mixed-methods study design to explore the planning and early implementation phases of scale up projects. Data will be gathered at three time periods, namely, at planning (TP), initiation of implementation (T0) and 1-year postinitiation (T1). We will extract project-related data from secondary documents at TP and conduct multistakeholder qualitative interviews to gather data at T0 and T1. We will undertake descriptive statistical analysis of TP data and analyse T0 and T1 data using inductive thematic coding. The data extraction tool and interview guides were developed based on a literature review of scale-up frameworks. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The current protocol was approved by the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC number 23482). Informed consent will be obtained from all participants. The study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and more broadly through the GACD network.

Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Developing Countries , Diabetes Mellitus/therapy , Humans , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/therapy , Noncommunicable Diseases/therapy , Systems Analysis
BMJ Open ; 11(1): e047016, 2021 01 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1050403


OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics, clinical management and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 at district hospitals. DESIGN: A descriptive observational cross-sectional study. SETTING: District hospitals (4 in metro and 4 in rural health services) in the Western Cape, South Africa. District hospitals were small (<150 beds) and led by family physicians. PARTICIPANTS: All patients who presented to the hospitals' emergency centre and who tested positive for COVID-19 between March and June 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Source of referral, presenting symptoms, demographics, comorbidities, clinical assessment and management, laboratory turnaround time, clinical outcomes, factors related to mortality, length of stay and location. RESULTS: 1376 patients (73.9% metro, 26.1% rural). Mean age 46.3 years (SD 16.3), 58.5% females. The majority were self-referred (71%) and had comorbidities (67%): hypertension (41%), type 2 diabetes (25%), HIV (14%) and overweight/obesity (19%). Assessment of COVID-19 was mild (49%), moderate (18%) and severe (24%). Test turnaround time (median 3.0 days (IQR 2.0-5.0 days)) was longer than length of stay (median 2.0 day (IQR 2.0-3.0)). The most common treatment was oxygen (41%) and only 0.8% were intubated and ventilated. Overall mortality was 11%. Most were discharged home (60%) and only 9% transferred to higher levels of care. Increasing age (OR 1.06 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.07)), male (OR 2.02 (95% CI 1.37 to 2.98)), overweight/obesity (OR 1.58 (95% CI 1.02 to 2.46)), type 2 diabetes (OR 1.84 (95% CI 1.24 to 2.73)), HIV (OR 3.41 (95% CI 2.06 to 5.65)), chronic kidney disease (OR 5.16 (95% CI 2.82 to 9.43)) were significantly linked with mortality (p<0.05). Pulmonary diseases (tuberculosis (TB), asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, post-TB structural lung disease) were not associated with increased mortality. CONCLUSION: District hospitals supported primary care and shielded tertiary hospitals. Patients had high levels of comorbidities and similar clinical pictures to that reported elsewhere. Most patients were treated as people under investigation. Mortality was comparable to similar settings and risk factors identified.

COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitals, District/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Cause of Death , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Management , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Patient Discharge , Referral and Consultation , Respiration, Artificial , South Africa/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome