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Commun Med (Lond) ; 1: 38, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860417


Background: The antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in individuals with waning immunity generated by a previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the patterns of IgA and IgM responses in previously infected and in naïve individuals are still poorly understood. Methods: We performed a serology study in a cohort of BTN162b2 mRNA vaccine recipients who were immunologically naïve (N, n = 50) or had been previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (P.I., n = 51) during the first (n = 25) or second (n = 26) pandemic waves in Italy, respectively. We measured IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) and IgG against the nucleocapsid (N) proteins, as well as the neutralizing activity of sera collected before vaccination, after the first and second dose of vaccine. Results: Most P.I. individuals from the first pandemic wave who showed declining antibody titres responded to the first vaccine dose with IgG-S and pseudovirus neutralization titres that were significantly higher than those observed in N individuals after the second vaccine dose. In all recipients, a single dose of vaccine was sufficient to induce a potent IgA response that was not associated with serum neutralization titres. We observed an unconventional pattern of IgM responses that were elicited in only half of immunologically naïve subjects even after the second vaccine dose. Conclusions: The response to a single dose of vaccine in P.I. individuals is more potent than that observed in N individuals after two doses. Vaccine-induced IgA are not associated with serum neutralization.

Eur J Neurol ; 29(6): 1855-1858, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832044


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) distinguish a group of inflammatory disorders which can be preceded by specific or non-specific infections. A few single cases have been reported in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but a specific study on the correlation between COVID-19 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-associated disorder (MOGAD) has not yet been performed. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the pandemic on this condition. METHODS: We analysed SARS-CoV-2 serology in patients newly diagnosed with MOGAD (1 August 2020 to 31 May 2021). MOG-Ab-seronegative age- and time-matched subjects were used as controls. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were analysed using an anti-SARS-CoV-2 US Food and Drug Administration-approved ELISA assay and confirmed with a trimeric anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG immunochemiluminescent test, concomitantly assaying the anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein IgG and anti-RBD total Ig. We actually compared the number of cases referred in each of the last 3 years. RESULTS: Presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was more common (12/30, 40%) in MOGAD patients than in controls (6/30, 20%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.16; odds ratio 2.67, 95% confidence interval 0.85-9.17). The most common clinical presentations of MOGAD SARS-CoV-2-seropositive patients included optic neuritis (n = 6) and myelitis (n = 3). The number of diagnosed cases increased over the last 3 years, in particular, when including cases referred to us before the COVID-19 pandemic, in the initial phase of the first wave and in the late phase of the second wave (n = 9, rate 10.6% in 2019; n = 13, rate 12.3% in 2020; n = 15, rate 14.7% in 2021). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide preliminary data on SARS-CoV-2 as a potential trigger of MOGAD.

COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2