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JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084957

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite growing scientific knowledge and research, it is still unknown if office flexible laryngoscopy (FL) is aerosol generating and thereby potentially increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The limited literature that exists is conflicting, precluding formal conclusions. Objective: To determine whether FL is aerosol generating. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 134 patients seen in the otolaryngology clinic at a single tertiary care academic institution between February and May 2021. Two optical particle sizer instruments were used, quantifying particles ranging from 0.02 µm to 5 µm. Measurements were taken every 30 seconds, with sample periods of 15 seconds throughout the patient encounter. Instruments were located 12 inches from the patient's nares. Timing of events was recorded, including the start and end of physical examination, topical spray administration, start and end of laryngoscopy, and other potential aerosol-generating events (eg, coughing, sneezing). Data analysis was performed from February to May 2021. Exposures: Office examination and office FL. Main Outcomes and Measures: Bayesian online change point detection (OCPD) algorithm was used to detect significant change points (CPs) in this time-series data. The primary outcome was significant CP after FL compared with baseline physiologic variations, such as breathing and phonation. Results: Data were collected from 134 patients between February and May 2021. Ninety-one encounters involved FL. Of this group, 51 patients (56%) wore no mask over their mouth during FL. There was no statistically significant CP in either visits involving FL or visits where FL was not performed. Use of nasal spray did not result in CP in aerosol levels. Overall, neither the number of people present in the examination room, masks over patients' mouth, the duration of the visit, nor the duration of FL were associated with mean aerosol counts, regardless of the exposure. For larger aerosol sizes (≥1 µm), however, rooms with higher air exchange rates had significantly higher reductions in mean aerosol counts for visits involving FL. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study support that FL, including topical spray administration, is not a significant aerosol-generating procedure. The Bayesian OCPD model has a promising application for future aerosol studies in otolaryngology.

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American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1927846

ABSTRACT

Introduction:Dupilumab is an anti-IL4R monoclonal antibody (mAb) with proven efficacy in severe eosinophilic asthma (SEA). We have previously identified that a suboptimal response to the eosinophil targeting anti-IL5/5R mAbs mepolizumab and benralizumab is seen in 27% and 14% of patients with SEA respectively1,2. The mechanism of this is not well-understood. It is unknown whether such patients respond in a clinically meaningful way following a switch to dupilumab. Methods:We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical effectiveness of dupilumab (minimum 6 months treatment) in patients with SEA at our tertiary severe asthma centre who had failed to adequately respond to at least one of the anti-IL-5/5R mAbs. Change in the annualised exacerbation rate (AER), maintenance oral corticosteroids (mOCS) requirements, ACQ-6 and mAQLQ was recorded. Results:Thirty-two patients (mean age 41.2, 68.8% female, 71.9% atopic) were included in the analysis. 13/32(40.6%) had co-morbid nasal polyposis and 5/32(15.6%) had eczema. The baseline FeNO was 60ppb(IQR 39.6-87.5) and peak eosinophil count prior to any mAb was 0.6(IQR 0.5-0.9). 23/32(71.8%) were switched from benralizumab, of whom, 12/23(52.2%) had also failed to respond to at least one other anti-IL5 mAb previously. At six months, the daily median mOCS dose in those requiring mOCS at baseline (n=18) fell from 10mg(IQR 5-25mg) to 3mg(IQR 0-5mg), p≤0.001. 4/18(22%) were able to stop mOCS completely. Mean(SD) AER improved from 2.34(1.89) to 0.44(0.95), p≤0.001. There were also significant improvements in ACQ6 and mAQLQ that exceeded twice the MCID for both measures: mean (SD) ACQ6 improved from 3.04(1.26) to 1.82(1.28), p≤0.001;mAQLQ improved from 3.90(SD 1.40) to 5.36(SD 1.05), p≤0.001. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, FEV1 data was only available for 8 patients. However, there was nonetheless a significant rise in FEV1 (%predicted) from 55.6% (9.78) to 68.5%(16.9), p=0.011. One patient discontinued dupilumab during the follow-up period. Conclusion: A minority of individuals with SEA have a suboptimal response to eosinophil targeted therapy with an anti-IL5/5R mAb. In these patients, we report significant clinical improvements following initiation with dupilumab suggesting an important role for the IL-4/-13 pathway in these patients. Further research is required to understand whether these patients represent a distinct subphenotype of T2-high asthma.

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Rheumatology Advances in Practice ; 4(SUPPL 1):i3, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1554557

ABSTRACT

Case report-IntroductionBy June 2020, 175,000 cases of COVID-19 had been identified in London alone. The most common symptoms include fever, headache, loss of smell, cough, myalgia, and sore throat. The major complication is acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) but systemic complications such as cardiomyopathy, acute kidney injury, encephalopathy and coagulopathy are being identified. A delayed multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children has also been recognised and further complications are likely to be identified as our experience increases. Here, we report the case of a patient with large vessel vasculitis who initially presented with symptoms highly likely to be due to COVID-19 infection.Case report-Case descriptionA 36-year-old black African nurse presented in May 2020, with acute onset 7 days prior of high-grade fevers, rigors, nights sweats, generalised myalgia, sore throat, headache with photophobia, anosmia, dysgeusia and a widespread rash. She was a smoker with no other relevant medical, travel nor sexual history, and no drug use. A COVID-19 swab on day 2 had been negative and she had taken a course of Doxycycline.Examination revealed firm palpable subcutaneous nodules on lower limbs, upper back and forehead and cervical lymphadenopathy. She was photophobic with no meningism. The rest of her physical examination was normal. BP was 116/97 mmHg, heart rate 109 bpm and satO2 100%. Investigations demonstrated C-reactive protein 330mg/L, erythrocyte sedimentation rate 140, Ferritin 479, lymphopaenia 0.7x109, eGFR 54 with no haematoproteinuria, D-dimer 3.05 mg/L with INR 1.1, aPTT 1.3, fibrinogen 8.8 g/L. Hb, WCC, liver function, CK, serum ACE and triglycerides were normal. Infectious screen revealed negative blood cultures, HIV, Hepatitis B and C, EBV, CMV and Treponema pallidum serology. CT brain and CSF analysis were normal including bacterial culture and viral PCR. ANA, ENA, dsDNA, ANCA and aPL antibodies were negative with normal complement levels. Throat swab grew group A streptococcus and she was treated with broad spectrum antibiotics for 7 days maintaining fevers up to 39oC. Skin biopsy was non-specific with negative direct immunofluorescence but showed microvascular thrombi in the papillary dermis. COVID-19 PCR tests (three naso-pharyngeal swabs and one stool PCR) and IgG test (day 38) were negative. CT showed no pneumonitis but non-specific retroperitoneal stranding with medium/large vessel vasculitis involving both proximal renal arteries and a 6 cm segment of mid abdominal aorta on PET-CT. We started oral prednisolone 40mg with immediate resolution of her fevers, myalgia, and inflammatory markers, remaining well a month later.Case report-DiscussionTakayasu's arteritis is the most common autoimmune large vessel vasculitis (LVV) affecting young females and involves inflammation of the arterial wall ultimately resulting in stenosis and obstruction of the vessel. However, it is rare in patients with African heritage and usually presents with a prolonged prodromal phase. Given the atypical presentation and symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infection we feel that this patients' LVV may have been a complication of COVID-19 infection. The relationship between infections and vasculitis is complex. TB and syphilis cause aortitis and a relationship between infection and vasculitis has been proven in HBV associated PAN and HCV associated cryoglobulinemia.Experimental data supports a possible association between CMV and herpes virus and Takayasu arteritis. It could, therefore, be hypothesised that COVID-19 infection can trigger LVV. Our patient had a throat swab positive for Streptococcus pyogenes which is an uncommon cause of infective endocarditis and mycotic aneurism, but this patient had no evidence of either endocarditis or aneurism formation and so it was felt the throat swab finding was incidental. Our patient had repeated negative COVID-19 nasopharyngeal swabs and a negative antibody test at day 38.Although this argues against a diagnosis of COVID-19 related illness, the relative lack of inform tion we currently have regarding sensitivities of the tests, at what point COVID-19 PCR becomes negative in the illness and when/if patients develop antibodies, means these negative tests in the presence of typical symptoms cannot exclude the diagnosis. We believe this case is extremely important to highlight a possible novel inflammatory complication of COVID-19 infection. We decided to treat this patient in line with guidance for the management of LVV, including the introduction of methotrexate, but it will be interesting to observe her long-term outcome.Case report-Key learning points Increasing numbers of COVID-19 related systemic inflammatory conditions are likely to be recognised over the coming months. We present the case of patient with large vessel vasculitis who initially presented atypically with symptoms consistent with COVID-19 infectionTo identify these complications, COVID-19 symptoms questioning should be part of any routine medical historyMore information is required regarding the sensitivity of COVID-19 PCR and antibody tests to aid the diagnosis of these conditionsThe long-term management of inflammatory conditions associated with COVID-19 infection is not clear and a discussion is warranted as to whether DMARDs should be initiated.

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Archives of Disease in Childhood ; 106(SUPPL 1):A258, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1495077

ABSTRACT

Background Simulation is resource heavy in terms of time, space, equipment, and faculty, with limitations on the number of people you can deliver each session to. During the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing makes face to face simulation more challenging. After working with a local healthcare VR team through a return to training project1, we explored benefits and acceptability of remotely debriefing 360° videos of simulated paediatric emergencies. Remote debrief has been used successfully in the past to train teams2 and faculty3. However, it's use in the context of 360 content is still novel. The theory being that because the participant is an 'active observer' this would bring a more immersive experience. Objectives We were keen to assess whether this novel method of experiencing simulation teaching was engaging, immersive and safe. Methods Using 360° content filmed at Royal Devon and Exeter hospitals, we ran a remote virtual simulation session over MS Teams video conferencing platform in local and regional paediatric teaching sessions. After a quick but vital pre-brief we asked the learners to watch a pre-filmed scenario (www.youtube.com/watch? v=1SqvH6TA-Kw). We guided them to interact with the video, directing their view in the 360° media to whatever interested them. This was followed by a debrief using a modified 'standard' simulation debrief structure. We collected feedback on its acceptability and similarity to face to face simulation. Results Between April 2020- March 2020. 9 Sessions around 130 learners, 60 gave feedback. Sessions were embedded in local, regional (South west) and international (Wales) teaching. Group sizes ranged from 6 to 40 learners. Levels ranged from medical students, foundation doctors, trainees and Paediatric consultants. Sessions were accessed on phones or computers at work or home. Feedback was globally positive 100% 'would do it again'. Qualitative feedback was rich and promising: . 'more life-like than expected' . 'safer than real sim as I didn't feel judged' . '360 element meant you had a different perspective'. Interestingly for some sessions we had more senior grade learners than our usual simulation sessions - this directed debriefs towards the non-technical learning which was discussed more than the medical learning. The debrief often led to learners sharing stories of clinical encounters and it did not seem to matter that they did not actively participate in the simulation. Additional positives include: . Easy accessibility for anyone to view 360 video (no need beyond normal consumer technology). . No need for additional faculty or manikins. . Relatively quick and engaging to run remotely. . Larger groups can be engage (and fit in a room) than standard simulation. After presenting this work in 2020, other hospitals have taken our pre-made scenarios and have used them for their own virtual sessions. Conclusions We recommend remote 360 sim with debrief as a fantastic adjunct to standard simulation. The modality is low cost, well received and a safe method of providing people with an experience of emergency scenarios. This is enhanced though a supportive debrief. The experiences have helped establish some 'best practices' for this evolving modality, which we are keen to share.

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Annals of Behavioral Medicine ; 55:S149-S149, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1250386
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Oncology Nursing Forum ; 48(2):130-+, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1151325
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