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Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(2)2023 Feb 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228972


All-cause mortality related to the SARS-CoV-2 infection has declined from the first wave to subsequent waves, probably through vaccination programs and the availability of effective antiviral therapies. Our study aimed to evaluate the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination on the prognosis of infected patients. Overall, we enrolled 545 subjects during the Delta variant wave and 276 ones during the Omicron variant wave. Data were collected concerning vaccination status, clinical parameters, comorbidities, lung involvement, laboratory parameters, and pharmacological treatment. Outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and 30-day all-cause mortality. Overall, the final sample included 821 patients with a mean age of 62 ± 18 years [range 18-100], and 59% were men. Vaccinated patients during the Delta wave were 37% (over ¾ with two doses), while during the Omicron wave they were 57%. Vaccinated patients were older (68 vs. 57 years), and 62% had at least one comorbidity Admission to the ICU was 20%, and the mortality rate at 30 days was 14%. ICU admissions were significantly higher during the Delta wave than during Omicron (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1), while all-cause mortality did not differ. Unvaccinated patients had a higher risk of ICU admission (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3-3.1) and 30-day all-cause mortality (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.3-2.7). Results were consistent for both Delta and Omicron variants. Overall, vaccination with at least two doses was associated with a reduced need for ICU admission. Even one shot of the vaccine was associated with a significantly reduced 30-day mortality.

Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(1)2023 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200939


Systemic autoinflammatory diseases (SAIDs) are defined by recurrent febrile attacks associated with protean manifestations involving joints, the gastrointestinal tract, skin, and the central nervous system, combined with elevated inflammatory markers, and are caused by a dysregulation of the innate immune system. From a clinical standpoint, the most known SAIDs are familial Mediterranean fever (FMF); cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS); mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD); and periodic fever, aphthosis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome. Current guidelines recommend the regular sequential administration of vaccines for all individuals with SAIDs. However, these patients have a much lower vaccination coverage rates in 'real-world' epidemiological studies than the general population. The main purpose of this review was to evaluate the scientific evidence available on both the efficacy and safety of vaccines in patients with SAIDs. From this analysis, neither serious adverse effects nor poorer antibody responses have been observed after vaccination in patients with SAIDs on treatment with biologic agents. More specifically, no new-onset immune-mediated complications have been observed following immunizations. Post-vaccination acute flares were significantly less frequent in FMF patients treated with colchicine alone than in those treated with both colchicine and canakinumab. Conversely, a decreased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been proved for patients with FMF after vaccination with the mRNA-based BNT162b2 vaccine. Canakinumab did not appear to affect the ability to produce antibodies against non-live vaccines in patients with CAPS, especially if administered with a time lag from the vaccination. On the other hand, our analysis has shown that immunization against Streptococcus pneumoniae, specifically with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine, was associated with a higher incidence of adverse reactions in CAPS patients. In addition, disease flares might be elicited by vaccinations in children with MKD, though no adverse events have been noted despite concurrent treatment with either anakinra or canakinumab. PFAPA patients seem to be less responsive to measles, mumps, and rubella-vaccine, but have shown higher antibody response than healthy controls following vaccination against hepatitis A. In consideration of the clinical frailty of both children and adults with SAIDs, all vaccinations remain 'highly' recommended in this category of patients despite the paucity of data available.

Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969296


BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 pandemic produced a significant increase in cases and an emergency state was induced worldwide. The current knowledge about the COVID-19 disease concerning diagnoses, patient tracking, the treatment protocol, and vaccines provides a consistent contribution for the primary prevention of the viral infection and decreasing the severity of the SARS-CoV-2 disease. The aim of the present investigation was to produce a general overview about the current findings for the COVID-19 disease, SARS-CoV-2 interaction mechanisms with the host, therapies and vaccines' immunization findings. METHODS: A literature overview was produced in order to evaluate the state-of-art in SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses, prognoses, therapies, and prevention. RESULTS: Concerning to the interaction mechanisms with the host, the virus binds to target with its Spike proteins on its surface and uses it as an anchor. The Spike protein targets the ACE2 cell receptor and enters into the cells by using a special enzyme (TMPRSS2). Once the virion is quietly accommodated, it releases its RNA. Proteins and RNA are used in the Golgi apparatus to produce more viruses that are released. Concerning the therapies, different protocols have been developed in observance of the disease severity and comorbidity with a consistent reduction in the mortality rate. Currently, different vaccines are currently in phase IV but a remarkable difference in efficiency has been detected concerning the more recent SARS-CoV-2 variants. CONCLUSIONS: Among the many questions in this pandemic state, the one that recurs most is knowing why some people become more seriously ill than others who instead contract the infection as if it was a trivial flu. More studies are necessary to investigate the efficiency of the treatment protocols and vaccines for the more recent detected SARS-CoV-2 variant.

COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , RNA , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
Case Rep Dent ; 2022: 8650099, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938101


Odontogenic infections represent a frequent condition that in some cases, if not treated promptly, can spread quickly to the rest of the body and turn into life-threatening infections. In this work, the case is reported of a 59-year-old woman, diabetic and overweight, who presented to the Odontostomatology and Otolaryngology Section of the Policlinic of Bari with mandibular tooth infection that had developed into a deep neck space infection leading to the involvement of cavernous sinuses and near mediastinum. The diagnosis, the surgical drainage of the phlegmon and removal of infection foci, appropriate control of the airways, and a correct antibiotic therapy made it possible to avoid a potentially fatal condition. Prompt management and early diagnosis of deep space neck infections, such as phlegmon and/or necrotizing fasciitis, with the auxilium of CT scans and tools such as LRINEC (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis), NLR (Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio), and LRINECxNLR scores (Laboratory Risk Indicator for Necrotizing Fasciitis and Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio), are advised to evade delays and complications that could potentially worsen the patient's outcome.