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1.
Diagnostics ; 12(5):1261, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1857831

ABSTRACT

In the last years, biomarkers of infection, such as the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), have been extensively studied as potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in the intensive care unit (ICU). In this study, we investigated whether this biomarker can be used in COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 septic patients for mortality prediction. Serum suPAR levels were measured in 79 non-COVID-19 critically ill patients upon sepsis (within 6 h), and on admission in 95 COVID-19 patients (66 critical and 29 moderate/severe). The non-COVID-19 septic patients were matched for age, sex, and disease severity, while the site of infection was the respiratory system. On admission, COVID-19 patients presented with higher suPAR levels, compared to non-COVID-19 septic patients (p < 0.01). More importantly, suPAR measured upon sepsis could not differentiate survivors from non-survivors (p > 0.05), as opposed to suPAR measured on admission in COVID-19 survivors and non-survivors (p < 0.0001). By the generated ROC curve, the prognostic value of suPAR in COVID-19 was 0.81, at a cut-off value of 6.3 ng/mL (p < 0.0001). suPAR measured early (within 24 h) after hospital admission seems like a specific and sensitive mortality risk predictor in COVID-19 patients. On the contrary, suPAR measured at sepsis diagnosis in non-COVID-19 critically ill patients, does not seem to be a prognostic factor of mortality.

2.
Nutrients ; 14(7)2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1834854

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted from SARS CoV-2 coronavirus infection, contributed toa rapid increasein hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions [...].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 94, 2022 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793938

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Before the pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), rapidly improving acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), mostly defined by early extubation, had been recognized as an increasingly prevalent subphenotype (making up 15-24% of all ARDS cases), associated with good prognosis (10% mortality in ARDSNet trials). We attempted to determine the prevalence and prognosis of rapidly improving ARDS and of persistent severe ARDS related to COVID-19. METHODS: We included consecutive patients with COVID-19 receiving invasive mechanical ventilation in three intensive care units (ICU) during the second pandemic wave in Greece. We defined rapidly improving ARDS as extubation or a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio (PaO2:FiO2) greater than 300 on the first day following intubation. We defined persistent severe ARDS as PaO2:FiO2 of equal to or less than 100 on the second day following intubation. RESULTS: A total of 280 intubated patients met criteria of ARDS with a median PaO2:FiO2 of 125.0 (interquartile range 93.0-161.0) on day of intubation, and overall ICU-mortality of 52.5% (ranging from 24.3 to 66.9% across the three participating sites). Prevalence of rapidly improving ARDS was 3.9% (11 of 280 patients); no extubation occurred on the first day following intubation. ICU-mortality of patients with rapidly improving ARDS was 54.5%. This low prevalence and high mortality rate of rapidly improving ARDS were consistent across participating sites. Prevalence of persistent severe ARDS was 12.1% and corresponding mortality was 82.4%. CONCLUSIONS: Rapidly improving ARDS was not prevalent and was not associated with good prognosis among patients with COVID-19. This is starkly different from what has been previously reported for patients with ARDS not related to COVID-19. Our results on both rapidly improving ARDS and persistent severe ARDS may contribute to our understanding of trajectory of ARDS and its association with prognosis in patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Oxygen , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
4.
Nutrients ; 14(7):1416, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762378

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted from SARS CoV-2 coronavirus infection, contributed toa rapid increasein hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions [...]

5.
Nutrients ; 14(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580548

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the new coronavirus strain SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) highlighted the need for appropriate feeding practices among critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). This study aimed to describe feeding practices of intubated COVID-19 patients during their second week of hospitalization in the First Department of Critical Care Medicine, Evaggelismos General Hospital, and evaluate potential associations with all cause 30-day mortality, length of hospital stay, and duration of mechanical ventilation. We enrolled adult intubated COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU between September 2020 and July 2021 and prospectively monitored until their hospital discharge. Of the 162 patients analyzed (52.8% men, 51.6% overweight/obese, mean age 63.2 ± 11.9 years), 27.2% of patients used parenteral nutrition, while the rest were fed enterally. By 30 days, 34.2% of the patients in the parenteral group had died compared to 32.7% of the patients in the enteral group (relative risk (RR) for the group receiving enteral nutrition = 0.97, 95% confidence interval = 0.88-1.06, p = 0.120). Those in the enteral group demonstrated a lower duration of hospital stay (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85-0.97, p = 0.036) as well as mechanical ventilation support (RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89-0.99, p = 0.043). Enteral feeding during second week of ICU hospitalization may be associated with a shorter duration of hospitalization and stay in mechanical ventilation support among critically ill intubated patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Enteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Parenteral Nutrition/statistics & numerical data , Respiration, Artificial/mortality , Critical Illness , Enteral Nutrition/methods , Enteral Nutrition/mortality , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Humans , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Parenteral Nutrition/methods , Parenteral Nutrition/mortality , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444284

ABSTRACT

There is an ongoing need for new therapeutic modalities against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mast cell histamine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of COVID-19 as a regulator of proinflammatory, fibrotic, and thrombogenic processes. Consequently, mast cell histamine and its receptors represent promising pharmacological targets. At the same time, nutritional modulation of immune system function has been proposed and is being investigated for the prevention of COVID-19 or as an adjunctive strategy combined with conventional therapy. Several studies indicate that several immunonutrients can regulate mast cell activity to reduce the de novo synthesis and/or release of histamine and other mediators that are considered to mediate, at least in part, the complex pathophysiology present in COVID-19. This review summarizes the effects on mast cell histamine of common immunonutrients that have been investigated for use in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Histamine/immunology , Immune System/immunology , Mast Cells/immunology , Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Pers Med ; 11(9)2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417166

ABSTRACT

Studies have hypothesized a potential role of the interleukin (IL)-23/17 axis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, to date, levels of IL-23 and 17 have not been compared between critically ill COVID-19 patients and critically ill non-COVID-19 patients. IL-23 and 17 were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in critically ill COVID-19 (N = 38) and critically ill non-COVID-19 (N = 34) patients with an equal critical illness severity. Critically ill non-COVID-19 patients did not have sepsis or septic shock on ICU admission. None of the enrolled patients had previously received corticosteroids. In our study, circulating IL-17 levels were higher in the COVID-19 patients. More specifically, critically ill COVID-19 patients had levels of 0.78 (0.05-1.8) pg/mL compared to 0.11 (0.05-0.9) pg/mL in the critically ill non-COVID-19 patients (p = 0.04). In contrast, IL-23 levels were comparable between groups. A group of patients hospitalized in the specialized COVID-19 clinic (N = 16) was also used to evaluate IL-17 and IL-23 levels with respect to COVID-19 severity. Non-critically ill COVID-19 patients had undetectable levels of both cytokines. Our results support the notion of inhibiting IL-17 in critical COVID-19 infection.

8.
Shock ; 56(5): 733-736, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146305

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is a protein that regulates the protein C anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory pathways. A soluble form of EPCR (sEPCR) circulates in plasma and inhibits activated protein C (APC) activities. The clinical impact of sEPCR and its involvement in COVID-19 has not been explored. In this study, we investigated whether sEPCR levels were related to COVID-19 patients' requirement for hospitalization. METHODS: Plasma sEPCR levels were measured on hospital admission in 84 COVID-19 patients, and in 11 non-hospitalized SARS-CoV2-positive patients approximately 6 days after reported manifestation of their symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify potential risk factors for hospitalization and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to assess their value. RESULTS: In our cohort, hospitalized patients had considerably higher sEPCR levels upon admission compared with outpatients [107.5 (76.7-156.3) vs. 44.6 (12.1-84.4) ng/mL; P < 0.0001)]. The ROC curve using hospitalization as the classification variable and sEPCR levels as the prognostic variable generated an area under the curve at 0.845 (95% CI = 0.710-0.981, P < 0.001). Additionally, we investigated the predictive value of sEPCR combined with BMI, age, or D-dimers. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort, sEPCR levels in COVID-19 patients upon hospital admission appear considerably elevated compared with outpatients; this could lead to impaired APC activities and might contribute to the pro-coagulant phenotype reported in such patients. sEPCR measurement might be useful as a point-of-care test in SARS-CoV2-positive patients.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Endothelial Protein C Receptor/blood , Adult , Aged , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/biosynthesis , Hospitalization , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Phenotype , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , RNA, Viral/metabolism , ROC Curve , Regression Analysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/blood
9.
In Vivo ; 35(2): 1295-1298, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100487

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIM: Lately, studies have reported contradicting results on the cytokine storm seen in critically-ill COVID-19 patients. Depending on the control group used, cytokines have been found to be higher, similar or even lower in COVID-19 compared to critical illnesses associated with elevated cytokine concentrations. However, most of these studies do not take into account critical illness severity. Hence, we decided to compare cytokine levels in critically-ill COVID-19 patients and critically-ill patients of a general intensive care unit (ICU), who did not have sepsis or septic shock, but had an equal disease severity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured on ICU admission in mechanically ventilated, COVID-19 (N=36) and non-COVID-19 (N=30) patients, who had not received dexamethasone, and had equal critical illness severity. Non-COVID-19 patients did not have sepsis or septic shock. RESULTS: In our case control study, circulating IL-6 and IL-10 were lower, while TNF-α and IL-8 levels were higher in critically-ill COVID-19 patients, compared to critically-ill non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to infer whether the cytokine storm seen in COVID-19 differs from other critical conditions. It is important to recognize that the conclusions of related studies may depend on control group selection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Critical Illness/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/metabolism , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Control Groups , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
10.
Metabolites ; 10(10)2020 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-906480

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to be a health threat worldwide. Increased blood lactate is common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients; however, its association with outcomes in ICU COVID-19 patients remains currently unexplored. In this retrospective, observational study we assessed whether lactate is associated with outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Blood lactate was measured on ICU admission and thereafter daily up to day 14 in 45 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) was calculated on ICU admission, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was assessed on admission and every second day. The cohort was divided into survivors and non-survivors based on 28-day ICU mortality (24.4%). Cox regression analysis revealed that maximum lactate on admission was independently related to 28-day ICU mortality with time in the presence of APACHE II (RR = 2.45, p = 0.008). Lactate's area under the curve for detecting 28-day ICU mortality was 0.77 (p = 0.008). Mixed model analysis showed that mean daily lactate levels were higher in non-survivors (p < 0.0001); the model applied on SOFA scores showed a similar time pattern. Thus, initial blood lactate was an independent outcome predictor in COVID-19 ICU patients. The time course of lactate mirrors organ dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

11.
Metabolites ; 10(10):386, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-799989

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) continues to be a health threat worldwide. Increased blood lactate is common in intensive care unit (ICU) patients;however, its association with outcomes in ICU COVID-19 patients remains currently unexplored. In this retrospective, observational study we assessed whether lactate is associated with outcomes in COVID-19 patients. Blood lactate was measured on ICU admission and thereafter daily up to day 14 in 45 patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II) was calculated on ICU admission, and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was assessed on admission and every second day. The cohort was divided into survivors and non-survivors based on 28-day ICU mortality (24.4%). Cox regression analysis revealed that maximum lactate on admission was independently related to 28-day ICU mortality with time in the presence of APACHE II (RR = 2.45, p = 0.008). Lactate"s area under the curve for detecting 28-day ICU mortality was 0.77 (p = 0.008). Mixed model analysis showed that mean daily lactate levels were higher in non-survivors (p <0.0001);the model applied on SOFA scores showed a similar time pattern. Thus, initial blood lactate was an independent outcome predictor in COVID-19 ICU patients. The time course of lactate mirrors organ dysfunction and is associated with poor clinical outcomes.

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