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1.
Pathogens ; 12(3)2023 Mar 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2279745

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 related immunopathology may be the driving cause underlying severe COVID-19. Through an immunophenotyping analysis on paired bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and blood samples collected from mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19-associated Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (CARDS), this study aimed to evaluate the cellular immune responses in survivors and non-survivors of COVID-19. METHODS: A total of 36 paired clinical samples of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) mononuclear cells (BALF-MC) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were collected from 18 SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Policlinico Umberto I, Sapienza University Hospital in Rome (Italy) for severe interstitial pneumonia. The frequencies of monocytes (total, classical, intermediate and non-classical) and Natural Killer (NK) cell subsets (total, CD56bright and CD56dim), as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets [naïve, central memory (TCM) and effector memory (TEM)], and those expressing CD38 and/or HLADR were evaluated by multiparametric flow cytometry. RESULTS: Survivors with CARDS exhibited higher frequencies of classical monocytes in blood compared to non-survivors (p < 0.05), while no differences in the frequencies of the other monocytes, NK cell and T cell subsets were recorded between these two groups of patients (p > 0.05). The only exception was for peripheral naïve CD4+ T cells levels that were reduced in non-survivors (p = 0.04). An increase in the levels of CD56bright (p = 0.012) and a decrease in CD56dim (p = 0.002) NK cell frequencies was also observed in BALF-MC samples compared to PBMC in deceased COVID-19 patients. Total CD4+ and CD8+ T cell levels in the lung compartment were lower compared to blood (p = 0.002 and p < 0.01, respectively) among non-survivors. Moreover, CD38 and HLA-DR were differentially expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets in BALF-MC and in PBMC among SARS-CoV-2-infected patients who died from COVID-19 (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: These results show that the immune cellular profile in blood and pulmonary compartments was similar in survivors and non-survivors of COVID-19. T lymphocyte levels were reduced, but resulted highly immune-activated in the lung compartment of patients who faced a fatal outcome.

2.
Infez Med ; 31(1): 49-54, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2277725

ABSTRACT

Background: Since the beginning of 2020, the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has become a serious public health problem. Numerous studies have highlighted the main clinical features of COVID-19, mainly the huge heterogeneity of the clinical manifestations that can vary from asymptomatic infection to serious viral pneumonia with a high mortality rate. The aim of this study was to analyze retrospectively the clinical characteristics and assess the risk factors for mortality in an Italian cohort of patients with COVID-19. Methods: Retrospective analysis including patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Infectious Diseases wards of Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Policlinico "Umberto 1", Rome, from March 2020 to May 2020. The data were part of an electronic anonymous web-based database processed by SIMIT (Italian Society of Infectious and Tropical Diseases). Results: 258 patients were included in the analysis, and 34 (13.2%) died. The median age was 62 (IQR, 52-74), 106 (40%) were women, and 152 (60%) were males, 172 (66.7%) had at least one co-morbidity. The most common signs and symptoms were: fever [221 (85.6%)], cough [135 (52.3%)], and dyspnea [133 (51.5%)]. The PaO2/FiO2 ratio was often altered [352 (IQR, 308-424)]. Lymphopenia [lymphocyte counts, 875/µL (IQR, 640-1250)] and high levels of D-dimer [mg/dL, 874 (IQR, 484-1518)] were found. Non-survivors were older than survivors [median age, 74 (IQR, 67-85)] vs. 61 (QR, 51-72)], mostly men [25 (73.5%)] and more frequently with more than 2 comorbidities [21 (61.8%) vs. 94 (42.1%)]. In the multiple logistic regression model, the variables associated with in-hospital mortality were age [OR, 3.65 (95% CI, 1.22-10.89)], male gender [OR, 2.99 (95% CI, 1.18-7.54)], blood urea [OR, 2.76 (95% CI, 1.20-6.35)] and a low PaO2/FiO2 ratio [OR, 0.28 (95% CI, 0.12-0.62)]. Conclusion: The mortality rate in COVID-19 was 13,2%. The risk factors associated with in-hospital mortality were advanced age, male sex, increased blood urea, and the PaO2/FiO2 ratio reduction.

3.
Pharmacol Rep ; 74(6): 1286-1295, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2285317

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term effects of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) are increasingly recognized as having a significant impact on Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). Understanding HRQoL status for each patient affected by long COVID-19 and its determinants may have a key role to prevent and treat this condition. METHODS: In this prospective observational study conducted in a large academic COVID-19 hospital in Rome, participants were contacted 2 years after hospital admission for severe COVID-19. To assess HRQoL, EQ-5D-5L and Visual analog scale (EQ VAS) standard questionnaires were administered by interview. Logistic regression model was used to the five health dimensions as dependent variables (0 = no problem, 1 = some/extreme problem). KEY RESULTS: In 137 enrolled patients, the mean pre-COVID and post-COVID EQ-5D-5L index and EQ-VAS score were 0.97 (SD 0.06), 0.79 (SD 0.26) and 72.38 (SD 15.18), respectively. After subdivision of the participants for clinical and social variables, the EQ-5D-5L index resulted significantly lower than in the pre-COVID-19 period. Female gender, unemployed status, and chronic comorbidities were the most common predictors for having any problems in each EQ-5D-5L domain, while also older age and higher Body Mass Index (BMI) showed to be related to a lower EQ-VAS score. CONCLUSION: HRQoL showed to be still low in patients 2 years after acute severe COVID-19. Given the significant impact of SARS-CoV-2 on long-term chronic symptoms, predictors of poor outcomes must be considered during the acute phase of illness to plan a tailored follow-up path for each patient.

4.
Eur J Immunol ; 52(7): 1120-1128, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1929799

ABSTRACT

A significant number of COVID-19 patients were shown to have neutralizing antibodies (NAB) against IFN; however, NAB specificity, fluctuation over time, associations with biochemical and hematological parameters, and IFN gene expression are not well characterized. Binding antibodies (BAB) to IFN-α/-ß were screened in COVID-19 patients' serum. All BAB positive sera, and a subset of respiratory samples, were tested for NAB against IFN-α/-ß/-ω, using an antiviral bioassay. Transcript levels of IFN-α/-ß/-ω and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were quantified. Anti-IFN-I BAB were found in 61 out of 360 (17%) of patients. Among BAB positive sera, 21.3% had a high NAB titer against IFN-α. A total of 69.2% of anti-IFN-α NAB sera displayed cross-reactivity to IFN-ω. Anti-IFN-I NAB persisted in all patients. NAB to IFN-α were also detected in 3 out of 17 (17.6%) of respiratory samples. Anti-IFN-I NAB were higher in males (p = 0.0017), patients admitted to the ICU (p < 0.0001), and patients with a fatal outcome (p < 0.0001). NAB were associated with higher levels of CRP, LDH, d-Dimer, and higher counts of hematological parameters. ISG-mRNAs were reduced in patients with persistently NAB titer. NAB are detected in a significant proportion of severe COVID-19. NAB positive patients presented a defective IFN response and increased levels of laboratory biomarkers of disease severity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 , Biomarkers , Down-Regulation , Humans , Interferon-alpha , Interferon-beta , Male , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Clin Immunol ; 241: 109068, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906890

ABSTRACT

The presence of anti-IFN neutralizing antibodies (NAB) has been reported in critically ill COVID-19 patients. We found that 87.5% (7/8) of HIV-1 patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 had serum anti-IFN-I NAB against IFN-α subtypes, IFN-ß and/or IFN-ω. Anti-IFN-I NAB were also detected in oropharyngeal samples. Patients with NAB were males, and those with high serum anti-IFN-α/ω NAB titer had severe illness and exhibited reduction in the expression of IFN-stimulated genes. Thus, high titer of anti-IFN-α/ω NAB may contribute to the greater severity of COVID-19 in HIV-1 infected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV-1 , Interferon Type I , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Female , Humans , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Male , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5736, 2022 04 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778634

ABSTRACT

The aims of this study were to characterize new SARS-CoV-2 genomes sampled all over Italy and to reconstruct the origin and the evolutionary dynamics in Italy and Europe between February and June 2020. The cluster analysis showed only small clusters including < 80 Italian isolates, while most of the Italian strains were intermixed in the whole tree. Pure Italian clusters were observed mainly after the lockdown and distancing measures were adopted. Lineage B and B.1 spread between late January and early February 2020, from China to Veneto and Lombardy, respectively. Lineage B.1.1 (20B) most probably evolved within Italy and spread from central to south Italian regions, and to European countries. The lineage B.1.1.1 (20D) developed most probably in other European countries entering Italy only in the second half of March and remained localized in Piedmont until June 2020. In conclusion, within the limitations of phylogeographical reconstruction, the estimated ancestral scenario suggests an important role of China and Italy in the widespread diffusion of the D614G variant in Europe in the early phase of the pandemic and more dispersed exchanges involving several European countries from the second half of March 2020.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Phylogeography , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 858-868, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718361

ABSTRACT

Despite the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic not yet being under control, post-Covid-19 syndrome is already a challenging topic: long-term multiorgan sequelae, although increasingly described, have not yet been systematized. As post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact both the working capacity and the relationship life of surviving patients, we performed a systematic review of the evidence published over the last year and currently available in medical literature search databases (MEDLINE/Pubmed) and searching clinical trial registries, to evaluate the available evidence among workers. From 31 publications that initially matched inclusion criteria, 13 studies have been considered suitable for relevance and age of subjects. A wide range of patients (16%-87%) have post-Covid syndrome; pneumological and neuropsychological symptoms were the most common disorders reported. The most frequent organic sequel found in post-Covid patients was pulmonary fibrosis. The number of symptoms during acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of the disease, and high serum levels of d-dimer were related to high risk of post-Covid syndrome. In conclusion, post-Covid-19 syndrome can significantly impact the health conditions of surviving patients. Rehabilitation and follow-up in multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs should be considered for working-age patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Fibrosis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
9.
Frontiers in nutrition ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1652264

ABSTRACT

Long COVID refers to patients with symptoms as fatigue, “brain fog,” pain, suggesting the chronic involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) in COVID-19. The supplementation with probiotic (OB) would have a positive effect on metabolic homeostasis, negatively impacting the occurrence of symptoms related to the CNS after hospital discharge. On a total of 58 patients hospitalized for COVID-19, 24 (41.4%) received OB during hospitalization (OB+) while 34 (58.6%) taken only the standard treatment (OB–). Serum metabolomic profiling of patients has been performed at both hospital acceptance (T0) and discharge (T1). Six months after discharge, fatigue perceived by participants was assessed by administrating the Fatigue Assessment Scale. 70.7% of participants reported fatigue while 29.3% were negative for such condition. The OB+ group showed a significantly lower proportion of subjects reporting fatigue than the OB– one (p < 0.01). Furthermore, OB+ subjects were characterized by significantly increased concentrations of serum Arginine, Asparagine, Lactate opposite to lower levels of 3-Hydroxyisobutirate than those not treated with probiotics. Our results strongly suggest that in COVID-19, the administration of probiotics during hospitalization may prevent the development of chronic fatigue by impacting key metabolites involved in the utilization of glucose as well as in energy pathways.

10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 735601, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581127

ABSTRACT

Despite the "migrants and COVID-19" topic has been neglected since felt marginal concerning other aspects of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, it represents a relevant public health issue in the European countries. This report describes COVID-19 containment strategies adopted in a large Italian reception center hosting recently arrived asylum-seeker migrants. Risk assessment and prevention measures adopted were described. Geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of the outbreak was reported. Significant gaps in the knowledge of self-protection measures from contagious diseases and in the perception of the pandemic risk were observed in migrants; health promotion activities, targeted to remove cultural barriers and improve behaviors appropriate to individual protection, were able to fulfill this gap. In low-resource settings, especially in closed communities, the implementation of social distancing strategies, the systematic use of individual protection devices, and active syndromic surveillance are essential tools to limit the risk of outbreaks. In the event of an outbreak, it is relevant to rapidly activate containment procedures based on systematic screening, isolation, and quarantine, taking into consideration the limits of tracing contacts within a closed community. Not being able to trace certain contacts, the geo-spatial epidemiological analysis of cases distribution could be key in the management of the outbreak. Interestingly, positive cases identified in our facility were all clinically pauci-symptomatic or asymptomatic. Dedicated strategies are needed to minimize the chance of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in a limited space such as reception centers and a vulnerable population such as migrants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Transients and Migrants , Developing Countries , Europe , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Infez Med ; 29(3): 408-415, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444695

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There is the need of a simple but highly reliable score system for stratifying the risk of mortality and Intensive Care Unit (ICU) transfer in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia at the Emergency Room. PURPOSE: In this study, the ability of CURB-65, extended CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) to predict intra-hospital mortality and ICU admission in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were evaluated. METHODS: During March-May 2020, a retrospective, single-center study including all consecutive adult patients with diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia was conducted. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data as well as CURB-65, expanded CURB-65, PSI and CALL scores were calculated based on data recorded at hospital admission. RESULTS: Overall, 224 patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia were included in the study. As for intrahospital mortality (24/224, 11%), PSI performed better than all the other tested scores, which showed lower AUC values (AUC=0.890 for PSI versus AUC=0.885, AUC=0.858 and AUC=0.743 for expanded CURB-65, CURB-65 and CALL scores, respectively). Of note, the addition of hypoalbuminemia to the CURB-65 score increased the prediction value of intra-hospital mortality (AUC=0.905). All the tested scores were less predictive for the need of ICU transfer (26/224, 12%), with the best AUC for extended CURB-65 score (AUC= 0.708). CONCLUSION: The addition of albumin level to the easy-to-calculate CURB-65 score at hospital admission is able to improve the quality of prediction of intra-hospital mortality in patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia.

12.
Clin Transplant ; 36(1): e14495, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1437995

ABSTRACT

Solid organ transplant patients are at a higher risk for poor CoronaVirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19)-related outcomes and have been included as a priority group in the vaccination strategy worldwide. We assessed the safety and efficacy of a two-dose vaccination cycle with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine (BNT162b2) among 82 kidney transplant outpatients followed in our center in Rome, Italy. After a median of 43 post-vaccine days, a SARS-CoV-2 anti-Spike seroprevalence of 52.4% (n = 43/82) was observed. No impact of the vaccination on antibody-mediated rejection or graft function was observed, and no significant safety concerns were reported. Moreover, no de novo HLA-donor-specific antibodies (DSA) were detected during the follow-up period. Only one patient with pre-vaccination HLA-DSA did not experience an increased intensity of the existing HLA-DSA. During the follow-up, only one infection (mild COVID-19) was observed in a patient after receiving the first vaccine dose. According to the multivariable logistic regression analysis, lack of seroconversion after two-dose vaccination independently associated with patient age ≥60 years (OR = 4.50; P = .02) and use of anti-metabolite as an immunosuppressant drug (OR = 5.26; P = .004). Among younger patients not taking anti-metabolites, the seroconversion rate was high (92.9%). Further larger studies are needed to assess the best COVID-19 vaccination strategy in transplanted patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Vaccination
13.
J Clin Med ; 10(17)2021 Sep 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390671

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: E-selectin is a recognized marker of endothelial activation; however, its place in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has not been fully explored. Aims of the study are to compare sE-selectin values among the Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-admitted and non-admitted, survived and non-survived patients and those with or without thrombosis. METHODS: A single-center study of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized at Policlinico Umberto I (Rome) from March to May 2020 was performed. Simple and multiple logistic regression models were developed. RESULTS: One hundred patients were included, with a median age (IQR) of 65 years (58-78). Twenty-nine (29%) were admitted to ICU, twenty-eight (28%) died and nineteen (19%) had a thrombotic event. The median value (IQR) of sE-selectin was 26.1 ng/mL (18.1-35). sE-selectin values did not differ between deceased and survivors (p = 0.06) and among patients with or without a thrombotic event (p = 0.22). Compared with patients who did not receive ICU treatments, patients requiring ICU care had higher levels of sE-selectin (36.6 vs. 24.1 ng/mL; p < 0.001). In the multiple logistic regression model, sE-selectin levels > 33 ng/mL, PaO2/FiO2 < 200 and PaO2/FiO2 200-300 were significantly associated with an increased risk of ICU admission. sE-selectin values significantly correlated with a neutrophil count (R = 0.32 (p = 0.001)) and the number of days from the symptoms onset to hospitalization (R = 0.28 (p = 0.004)). CONCLUSIONS: sE-selectin levels are predictive of ICU admission in COVID-19 patients. Since data on the relation between sE-selectin and COVID-19 are scarce, this study aims to contribute toward the comprehension of the pathogenic aspects of COVID-19 disease, giving a possible clinical marker able to predict its severity.

14.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1367879

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We previously reported that severe COVID-19 patients had higher chances of survival and a reduced risk of developing respiratory failure when administered with the probiotic formulation SLAB51. This study aimed to investigate further bacteriotherapy mechanisms and how early they are activated. METHODS: We performed an analysis on the blood oxygenation parameters collected in sixty-nine severe COVID-19 patients requiring non-invasive oxygen therapy and presenting a CT lung involvement ≥50%. Twenty-nine patients received low-molecular-weight heparin, azithromycin and Remdesivir. In addition, forty subjects received SLAB51. Blood gas analyses were performed before the beginning of treatments and at 24 h. RESULTS: The patients receiving only standard therapy needed significantly increased oxygen amounts during the 24 h observation period. Furthermore, they presented lower blood levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2 than the group also supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. In vitro data suggest that SLAB51 can reduce nitric oxide synthesis in intestinal cells. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infected patients may present lesions in the lungs compromising their gas exchange capability. The functionality of the organs essential for these patients' survival depends mainly on the levels of pO2, O2Hb and SaO2. SLAB51 contains enzymes that could reduce oxygen consumption in the intestine, making it available for the other organs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Blood Gas Analysis , Cell Line , Female , Heparin , Humans , Hypoxia , Italy , Lung , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
15.
Front Immunol ; 12: 708149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337643

ABSTRACT

Microbial translocation (MT) and intestinal damage (ID) are poorly explored in COVID-19. Aims were to assess whether alteration of gut permeability and cell integrity characterize COVID-19 patients, whether it is more pronounced in severe infections and whether it influences the development of subsequent bloodstream infection (BSI). Furthermore, we looked at the potential predictive role of TM and ID markers on Intensive Care Unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality. Over March-July 2020, 45 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. Markers of MT [LPB (Lipopolysacharide Binding Protein) and EndoCab IgM] and ID [I-FABP (Intestinal Fatty Acid Binding Protein)] were evaluated at COVID-19 diagnosis and after 7 days. As a control group, age- and gender-matched healthy donors (HDs) enrolled during the same study period were included. Median age was 66 (56-71) years. Twenty-one (46.6%) were admitted to ICU and mortality was 22% (10/45). Compared to HD, a high degree of MT and ID was observed. ICU patients had higher levels of MT, but not of ID, than non-ICU ones. Likewise, patients with BSI had lower EndoCab IgM than non-BSI. Interestingly, patients with high degree of MT and low ID were likely to be admitted to ICU (AUC 0.822). Patients with COVID-19 exhibited high level of MT, especially subjects admitted to ICU. COVID-19 is associated with gut permeability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Acute-Phase Proteins/metabolism , Aged , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/pathology , Carrier Proteins/metabolism , Disease Progression , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Male , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prognosis , Survival Analysis , Tight Junctions/metabolism
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 339: 235-242, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1293831

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) can occur in COVID-19 and has impact on clinical course. Data on CVD prevalence in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and sequelae in survivors is limited. Aim of this prospective study carried out on consecutive unselected COVID-19 population, was to assess: 1) CVD occurrence among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, 2) persistence or new onset of CVD at one-month and one-year follow-up. METHODS: Over 30 days n = 152 COVID-19 patients underwent cardiovascular evaluation. Standard electrocardiogram (ECG), Troponin and echocardiography were integrated by further tests when indicated. Medical history, arterial blood gas, blood tests, chest computed tomography and treatment were recorded. CVD was defined as the occurrence of a new condition during the hospitalization for COVID-19. Survivors attended a one-month follow-up visit and a one-year telephone follow-up. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (28%) experienced a wide spectrum of CVD with acute myocarditis being the most frequent. Death occurred in 32 patients (21%) and more frequently in patients who developed CVD (p = 0.032). After adjustment for confounders, CVD was independently associated with death occurrence. At one-month follow-up visit, 7 patients (9%) presented persistent or delayed CVD. At one-year telephone follow-up, 57 patients (48%) reported persistent symptoms. CONCLUSION: Cardiovascular evaluation in COVID-19 patients is crucial since the occurrence of CVD in hospitalized COVID-19 patients is common (28%), requires specific treatment and increases the risk of in-hospital mortality. Persistence or delayed presentation of CVD at 1-month (9%) and persistent symptoms at 1-year follow-up (48%) suggest the need for monitoring COVID-19 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Myocarditis , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab ; 12: 20420188211010105, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1215076

ABSTRACT

The pandemic acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) named COVID-19 is causing a severe health emergency, and an individual's hormonal milieu may play an important role in both susceptibility to infection and severity of clinical course. We analyzed the role of testosterone in the immune response, and we hypothesized possible mechanisms to explain the high incidence of COVID-19 infection and a worse clinical course in elderly male patients. Testosterone may impair the immune response, and this effect could explain the greater susceptibility of men to infection. Transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) plays a crucial role in the entry of the virus into the respiratory epithelial cells, leading to COVID-19 disease. It is crucial to emphasize that testosterone levels and chemical castration (e.g. by androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer) may have contrasting roles in the phases of COVID-19 infection. Whereas low testosterone levels may be protective against the initial susceptibility (due to a restoration of immunological functions and a block of TMPRSS2), low testosterone may stimulate a worse clinical course in the advanced COVID-19 infection as it could exacerbate or activate the cytokine storm. If testosterone levels play these different roles, it is necessary to carefully identify patients for any indicated testosterone manipulation.

18.
Chemotherapy ; 66(1-2): 24-32, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147336

ABSTRACT

Respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms are the predominant clinical manifestations of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Infecting intestinal epithelial cells, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 may impact on host's microbiota and gut inflammation. It is well established that an imbalanced intestinal microbiome can affect pulmonary function, modulating the host immune response ("gut-lung axis"). While effective vaccines and targeted drugs are being tested, alternative pathophysiology-based options to prevent and treat COVID-19 infection must be considered on top of the limited evidence-based therapy currently available. Addressing intestinal dysbiosis with a probiotic supplement may, therefore, be a sensible option to be evaluated, in addition to current best available medical treatments. Herein, we summed up pathophysiologic assumptions and current evidence regarding bacteriotherapy administration in preventing and treating COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dysbiosis , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Probiotics/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Dysbiosis/therapy , Dysbiosis/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 594269, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1054984

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence is needed on the effectiveness of wearing face masks in the community to prevent SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and effectiveness of face mask use in a community setting and to predict the effectiveness of wearing a mask. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCISEARCH, The Cochrane Library, and pre-prints from inception to 22 April 2020 without restriction by language. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane and GRADE approach. Findings: Our search identified 35 studies, including three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (4,017 patients), 10 comparative studies (18,984 patients), 13 predictive models, nine laboratory experimental studies. For reducing infection rates, the estimates of cluster-RCTs were in favor of wearing face masks vs. no mask, but not at statistically significant levels (adjusted OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.05). Similar findings were reported in observational studies. Mathematical models indicated an important decrease in mortality when the population mask coverage is near-universal, regardless of mask efficacy. In the best-case scenario, when the mask efficacy is at 95%, the R0 can fall to 0.99 from an initial value of 16.90. Levels of mask filtration efficiency were heterogeneous, depending on the materials used (surgical mask: 45-97%). One laboratory study suggested a viral load reduction of 0.25 (95% CI 0.09-0.67) in favor of mask vs. no mask. Interpretation: The findings of this systematic review and meta-analysis support the use of face masks in a community setting. Robust randomized trials on face mask effectiveness are needed to inform evidence-based policies. PROSPERO registration: CRD42020184963.

20.
Front Nutr ; 7: 613928, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1052491

ABSTRACT

Background: Mounting evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 may impact on host microbiota and gut inflammation, infecting intestinal epithelial cells. This possible link and its implications can be investigated by observing the effects of modulation of the microbial flora in patients with COVID-19. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of mortality, the need of ICU hospitalization and the length of hospitalization in patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia who received the best available therapy (BAT) vs. patients treated with BAT and supplemented with oral bacteriotherapy. Methods: This retrospective, observational cohort study included 200 adults with severe COVID-19 pneumonia. All patients received therapeutic regimens including low molecular weight heparin plus one or more between hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, antivirals, and Tocilizumab. Oral bacteriotherapy was used as complementary treatment. Results: Out of the 200 patients, 112 received BAT without oral bacteriotherapy, and 88 BAT with oral bacteriotherapy. Crude mortality was 22%. Eleven percent died in the group of patients treated with BAT plus oral bacteriotherapy vs. 30% subjects in the group of patients managed only with BAT (p < 0.001). By multivariate analysis, the age >65 years, CRP >41.8 mg/L, Platelets <150.000 mmc, and cardiovascular events were associated with the increased risk of mortality. Oral bacteriotherapy was an independent variable associated with a reduced risk for death. Despite large prospective trials are needed, this study highlights a possible role for oral bacteriotherapy in the management of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 pneumonia.

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