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1.
Journal of Marine Medical Society ; 24(3):30-33, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1997940

ABSTRACT

Background: Caregivers not being allowed into the COVID wards prevented them from being involved in caring for their relatives in respect of day-to-day activities such as eating, drinking, and walking to the washroom. The aim of this study was to observe the challenges faced by patients admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 pneumonia. We also observed the impact of two simple nursing interventions related to feeding and defecation and noted their impact in terms of patient's satisfaction. Materials and Methods: A semi-structured feedback questionnaire was prepared to cover common challenges faced by patients after interview with 10 patients admitted at a COVID ICU. Two simple nursing interventions were performed related to feeding and defecation. Results: Breathlessness was the most common issue as all the patients admitted were hypoxic. Inability to perform routine day-to-day functions such as feeding, drinking, sitting, and walking were other common issues. Emotional issues like anxiety, fear homesickness, and loneliness were also very high. Most (69.44%) patients were satisfied with a blended diet which was easy to take for patients with breathlessness. Most (77.28%) of patients were satisfied with intervention of helping them sit on a commode chair while on oxygen. Conclusion: During this pandemic, where all our efforts seemed insufficient in face of this unprecedented crisis yet these small seemingly insignificant steps helped both the patients as well as nurses in making the atmosphere more positive.

2.
Middle East Journal of Anesthesiology ; 29(1):62-71, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1970212

ABSTRACT

Background: The impacts of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) were limited not only to clinical mortality and morbidity but also to the shortage of qualified intensive care professionals, such as respiratory therapists (RTs). To overcome the acute shortage of RTs, the corporate academic affairs of the Abu Dhabi Health Services, Co. (SEHA) instituted a series of training workshops to teach the essentials of respiratory care. Methodology: Over a 1-month period, a series of 1-and 2-day workshops were conducted for healthcare professionals, including anesthesia technologists, nurses, physicians, and physiotherapists, according to their skill levels. The workshops included core practices of respiratory care, so that the professionals could support the RTs in intensive care units. The course content was delivered as the-oretical and practical modules. The training outcomes were assessed subjectively by a competency checklist completed by the trainee during the practical sessions;in addition, pre-and posttest assess-ments were conducted to statistically evaluate the training outcomes. Results: The educational intervention was effective in improving the knowledge of the 118 health-care professionals who received a mean pretest score of 12.25 ± 4.147 and a mean posttest score of 17.71 ± 2.415 (p < 0.05). Analyses of pre-and posttest scores of each individual professional group were also statistically significant (p < 0.05 for each). Conclusion: This project’s clinical and statistical outcomes were effective. Our project showed that a skilled professional shortage crisis during a pandemic can be compensated to some extent by training related healthcare professionals as a supporting task force. © 2022, American University of Beirut. All rights reserved.

3.
2021 International Conference on Recent Innovations in Science and Technology, RIST 2021 ; 2463, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1860501

ABSTRACT

Machine Learning (ML) can be used to track the disease and predict the growth of the epidemic. Several detection models for COVID-19 are developed. Due to the uncertainty and lack of essential data, many existing models have shown low accuracy in detection. In several technology domains, ML models have been used to define and prioritize adverse threat variables. This study proposes an improved model to analyses and detect the amount of COVID-19-affected patients. In this study, we propose a classification model that detect the infected condition through the chest X-ray images. A dataset containing chest x-ray images of normal people, people with pneumonia such as SARS and pneumococcus and other patients with COVID-19 were collected. Histogram of oriented gradients (HOG) is used for image features extraction. The images are then classified using Support Vector Machines (SVM), random forests and K-nearest neighbors (KNN). These results may contribute well in detecting COVID-19 disease. © 2022 Author(s).

4.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(1): 247-250, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581409

ABSTRACT

We sequenced ≈50% of coronavirus disease cases imported to Hong Kong during March-July 2021 and identified 70 cases caused by Delta variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The genomic diversity detected in Hong Kong was similar to global diversity, suggesting travel hubs can play a substantial role in surveillance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Travel
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(2): 460-462, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551462

ABSTRACT

We report detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) in an asymptomatic, fully vaccinated traveler in a quarantine hotel in Hong Kong, China. The Omicron variant was also detected in a fully vaccinated traveler staying in a room across the corridor from the index patient, suggesting transmission despite strict quarantine precautions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , China/epidemiology , Hong Kong/epidemiology , Humans , Quarantine
7.
Indian Journal of Respiratory Care ; 10:24-28, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1256784

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is impacting large patient populations, resulting in respiratory compromise, necessitating artificial respiratory supports. Early treatment modalities for severe respiratory failure during the pandemic focused on early intubation and invasive ventilation, as this was considered to be more effective than noninvasive respiratory strategies. However, emerging evidence proved that noninvasive respiratory supports such as noninvasive ventilation, high flow nasal cannula along with prone positioning might have a more significant and positive role than initially thought during the pandemic. Reflective evidence also suggests the utility of noninvasive respiratory supports as appropriate bridging adjuncts in the early stages of the disease process and has the potential to prevent intubation or invasive ventilation. This narrative review focusses on various strategies that are attempted in COVID-19 patients to avoid endotracheal intubation.

9.
Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology ; 15(1):915-923, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1061481

ABSTRACT

The current global pandemic of COVID-19 is caused by a virus of corona family named SARS-CoV-2. Cardiovascular manifestations of COVID-19 are varied and complex and include myocarditis, acute coronary syndrome, heart failure, pericarditis and pericardial effusion. Those with cardiac comorbidites are at higher risk of severe infection and death. SARS-CoV-2 may infiltrate and injury the heart directly or may cause Myocardial infarction, LV dysfunction secondary to myocarditis, congestive cardiac failure, rhythm abnormalities and pulmonary and other vascular embolisms. The medications used to treat COVID-19 may also have serious cardiac side effects. A through understanding of the cardiac involvement of COVID-19 and its varied presentation is needed for management of COVID-19 infection and its complications. © 2021, Institute of Medico-Legal Publications. All rights reserved.

10.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(5): 1214-1215, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963379
11.
J Autoimmun ; 114: 102512, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-622481

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can progress to cytokine storm that is associated with organ dysfunction and death. The purpose of the present study is to determine clinical characteristics associated with 28 day in-hospital survival in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) that received tocilizumab. This was a retrospective observational cohort study conducted at a five hospital health system in Michigan, United States. Adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 that were admitted to the hospital and received tocilizumab for cytokine storm from March 1, 2020 through April 3, 2020 were included. Patients were grouped into survivors and non-survivors based on 28 day in-hospital mortality. Study day 0 was defined as the day tocilizumab was administered. Factors independently associated with in-hospital survival at 28 days after tocilizumab administration were assessed. Epidemiologic, demographic, laboratory, prognostic scores, treatment, and outcome data were collected and analyzed. Clinical response was collected and defined as a decline of two levels on a six-point ordinal scale of clinical status or discharged alive from the hospital. Of the 81 patients included, the median age was 64 (58-71) years and 56 (69.1%) were male. The 28 day in-hospital mortality was 43.2%. There were 46 (56.8%) patients in the survivors and 35 (43.2%) in the non-survivors group. On study day 0 no differences were noted in demographics, clinical characteristics, severity of illness scores, or treatments received between survivors and non-survivors. C-reactive protein was significantly higher in the non-survivors compared to survivors. Compared to non-survivors, recipients of tocilizumab within 12 days of symptom onset was independently associated with survival (adjusted OR: 0.296, 95% CI: 0.098-0.889). SOFA score ≥8 on day 0 was independently associated with mortality (adjusted OR: 2.842, 95% CI: 1.042-7.753). Clinical response occurred more commonly in survivors than non-survivors (80.4% vs. 5.7%; p < 0.001). Improvements in the six-point ordinal scale and SOFA score were observed in survivors after tocilizumab. Early receipt of tocilizumab in patients with severe COVID-19 was an independent predictor for in-hospital survival at 28 days.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infusions, Intravenous , Interleukin-6/immunology , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Male , Michigan/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Receptors, Interleukin-6/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptors, Interleukin-6/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Time Factors , Time-to-Treatment , Treatment Outcome
12.
Polym Degrad Stab ; 179: 109251, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526748

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in globally constrained supplies for face masks and personal protective equipment (PPE). Production capacity is limited in many countries and the future course of the pandemic will likely continue with shortages for high quality masks and PPE in the foreseeable future. Hence, expectations are that mask reuse, extended wear and similar approaches will enhance the availability of personal protective measures. Repeated thermal disinfection could be an important option and likely easier implemented in some situations, at least on the small scale, than UV illumination, irradiation or hydrogen peroxide vapor exposure. An overview on thermal responses and ongoing filtration performance of multiple face mask types is provided. Most masks have adequate material properties to survive a few cycles (i.e. 30 min disinfection steps) of thermal exposure in the 75°C regime. Some are more easily affected, as seen by the fusing of plastic liner or warping, given that preferred conditioning temperatures are near the softening point for some of the plastics and fibers used in these masks. Hence adequate temperature control is equally important. As guidance, disinfectants sprayed via dilute solutions maintain a surface presence over extended time at 25 and 37°C. Some spray-on alcohol-based solutions containing disinfectants were gently applied to the top surface of masks. Neither moderate thermal aging (less than 24 h at 80 and 95°C) nor gentle application of surface disinfectant sprays resulted in measurable loss of mask filter performance. Subject to bio-medical concurrence (additional checks for virus kill efficiency) and the use of low risk non-toxic disinfectants, such strategies, either individually or combined, by offering additional anti-viral properties or short term refreshing, may complement reuse options of professional masks or the now ubiquitous custom-made face masks with their often unknown filtration effectiveness.

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