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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276158

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines report ≥90% efficacy, breakthrough infections occur. Little is known about the effectiveness of these vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 variants, including the highly-prevalent B.1.427/B.1.429 variant in California.. METHODS: In this quality improvement project, we collected demographic and clinical information from post-vaccine SARS-CoV-2 cases (PVSCs), defined as health care personnel (HCP) with positive SARS-CoV-2 NAAT after receiving ≥1 vaccine dose. Available specimens were tested for L452R, N501Y and E484K mutations by RT-PCR. Mutation prevalence was compared among unvaccinated, early post-vaccinated (<=14 days after dose 1), partially vaccinated (positive test >14 days after dose 1 and ≤14 days after dose 2) and fully vaccinated (>14 days after dose 2) PVSCs. RESULTS: From December 2020-April 2021, >=23,090 HCPS received at least1 dose of an mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and 660 HCP cases of SARS-CoV-2 occurred of which 189 were PVSCs. Among the PVSCs, 114 (60.3%), 49 (25.9%) and 26 (13.8%) were early post-vaccination, partially vaccinated, and fully vaccinated, respectively. Of 261 available samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated HCP, 103 (39.5%), including 42 PVSCs (36.5%), had L452R mutation presumed to be B.1.427/B.1.429,. When adjusted for community prevalence of B.1.427/B.1.429, PVSCs did not have significantly elevated risk for infection with B.1.427/B.1.429 compared with unvaccinated HCP. CONCLUSIONS: Most PVSCs occurred prior to expected onset of full, vaccine-derived immunity. Presumptive B.1.427/B.1.429 was not more prevalent in post-vaccine cases than in unvaccinated SARS-CoV-2 HCP. Continued infection control measures, particularly ≤14 days post-vaccination, and continued variant surveillance in PVSCs is imperative to control future SARS-CoV-2 surges.

2.
Hosp Pediatr ; 11(8): e151-e156, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236617

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Pediatric hospitalization rates are used as a marker of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease severity in children but may be inflated by the detection of mild or asymptomatic infection via universal screening. We aimed to classify COVID-19 hospitalizations using an existing and novel approach and to assess the interrater reliability of both approaches. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study characterized severity of illness and likelihood of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection as the cause of hospitalization in pediatric patients <18 years of age. Subjects had positive SARS-CoV-2 nasopharyngeal testing or were diagnosed with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and were hospitalized between May 10, 2020 (when universal screening of all admissions began) and February 10, 2021, at a university-based, quaternary care children's hospital in Northern California. Hospitalizations were categorized as either likely or unlikely to be caused by SARS-CoV-2 (novel approach), and disease severity was categorized according to previously published classification of disease severity. RESULTS: Of 117 hospitalizations, 46 (39.3%) were asymptomatic, 33 (28.2%) had mild to moderate disease, 9 (7.7%) had severe illness, and 15 (12.8%) had critical illness (weighted κ: 0.82). A total of 14 (12%) patients had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. A total of 53 (45%) admissions were categorized as unlikely to be caused by SARS-CoV-2 (κ: 0.78). CONCLUSIONS: Although COVID-19 has considerable associated morbidity and mortality in children, reported hospitalization rates likely lead to overestimation of the true disease burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Child , Hospitalization , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
3.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 632-635, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1048938

ABSTRACT

We developed an assay that detects minus-strand RNA as a surrogate for actively replicating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. We detected minus-strand RNA in 41 persons with coronavirus disease up to 30 days after symptom onset. This assay might inform clinical decision-making about patient infectiousness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , COVID-19/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Virus Replication/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , Clinical Decision-Making , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral/physiology , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(9): 1053-1059, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989631

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the magnitude of unidentified coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in our healthcare personnel (HCP) early in the COVID-19 pandemic, and we evaluated risk factors for infection to identify areas for improvement in infection control practice in a northern California academic medical center. METHODS: We reviewed anti-severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) receptor-binding domain (RBD) IgG serologic test results and self-reported risk factors for seropositivity among 10,449 asymptomatic HCP who underwent voluntary serology testing between April 20 and May 20, 2020. RESULTS: In total, 136 employees (1.3%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. This included 41 individuals (30.1%) who had previously tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) between March 13 and April 16, 2020. In multivariable analysis, employees of Hispanic ethnicity (odds ratio [OR], 2.01; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.22-3.46) and those working in environmental services, food services, or patient transport (OR, 4.81; 95% CI, 2.08-10.30) were at increased risk for seropositivity compared to other groups. Employees reporting a household contact with COVID-19 were also at higher risk for seropositivity (OR, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.47-6.44), but those with a work, exposure alone were not (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.58-2.47). Importantly, one-third of seropositive individuals reported no prior symptoms, no suspected exposures, and no prior positive RT-PCR test. CONCLUSION: In this study, SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among HCP early in the northern California epidemic appeared to be quite low and was more likely attributable to community rather than occupational exposure.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , California/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
5.
Hosp Pediatr ; 10(6): 537-540, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-42113

ABSTRACT

In the midst of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, we are seeing widespread disease burden affecting patients of all ages across the globe. However, much remains to be understood as clinicians, epidemiologists, and researchers alike are working to describe and characterize the disease process while caring for patients at the frontlines. We describe the case of a 6-month-old infant admitted and diagnosed with classic Kawasaki disease, who also screened positive for COVID-19 in the setting of fever and minimal respiratory symptoms. The patient was treated per treatment guidelines, with intravenous immunoglobulin and high-dose aspirin, and subsequently defervesced with resolution of her clinical symptoms. The patient's initial echocardiogram was normal, and she was discharged within 48 hours of completion of her intravenous immunoglobulin infusion, with instruction to quarantine at home for 14 days from the date of her positive test results for COVID-19. Further study of the clinical presentation of pediatric COVID-19 and the potential association with Kawasaki disease is warranted, as are the indications for COVID-19 testing in the febrile infant.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/complications , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Infant , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy
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