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Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2231790


BACKGROUND: Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucor mycosis (ROCM) is a relatively rare opportunistic infection caused by the Mucorales species. While ROCM suggests involvement of the paranasal sinuses, orbit and brain ROM (rhino-orbital-Mucormycosis) stands for the fungal invasion in sinuses and orbit sans cerebral involvement. In India with the outbreak of the second COVID wave and the delta variant of the virus, there has been a steep increase in this opportunistic fulminant fungal infection, named COVID-associated Mucor mycosis (CAM). The most critical question in orbital management is when to go ahead with an exenteration. Our study aims to design a pertinent minimal invasive surgical protocol for surgeons to manage such cases based on our surgical experience and mitigate the need for exenteration and save the eyes wherever possible. METHODS: The study is a retrospective analysis of patients of ROM with and without brain involvement, who underwent minimal surgical management between March 2021 to March 2022 along with their follow-up. RESULTS: There were 184 eyes of 148 patients diagnosed with CAM. The mean age was 51.7 years with a male predominance of 103 (70%). All patients developed ROM following the COVID-19 infection and the duration between diagnosis of COVID-19 and ROM was 36 ± 23 days. 18 cases (12%) were bilateral. 76 eyes (41%) had no vision at the presentation. Imaging revealed paranasal sinus involvement (100%), orbital apex involvement (61%), cavernous sinus involvement (53%), and central nervous system (CNS) involvement (47%). All the patients (100%) were treated with systemic Liposomal amphotericin-B and sinus debridement. Endoscopic debridement of the orbital disease was performed in 45 (30.4%) cases, 15(8.1%) eyes underwent exenteration and were later rehabilitated with a customized ocular prosthesis, 103 (56%) eyes underwent transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin-B. At a mean follow-up of 13.1 months; the complete resolution was seen in 25 (17%) cases, the residual stable lesion was seen in 77(52%) of the cases and new lesions were developed in 13(9%) of the cases. Mortality was seen in 33 (22%) patients and all of them had CNS involvement. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic and protocol-based management can save the life and salvage the eyes.

J Fungi (Basel) ; 8(3)2022 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1725831


This study aimed to determine the patient demographics, risk factors, which include comorbidities, medications used to treat COVID-19, and presenting symptoms and signs, and the management outcome of COVID-19-associated invasive fungal sinusitis. A retrospective, propensity score-matched, comparative study was conducted at a tertiary care center, involving 124 patients with invasive fungal sinusitis admitted between April 2021 and September 2021, suffering from or having a history of COVID-19 infection. Among the 124 patients, 87 were male, and 37 were female. A total of 72.6% of patients received steroids, while 73.4% received antibiotics, and 55.6% received oxygen during COVID-19 management. The most common comorbidities were diabetes mellitus (83.9%) and hypertension (30.6%). A total of 92.2% had mucor, 16.9% had aspergillus, 12.9% had both, and one patient had hyalohyphomycosis on fungal smear and culture. The comparative study showed the significant role of serum ferritin, glycemic control, steroid use, and duration in COVID-19-associated invasive fungal disease (p < 0.001). Headache and facial pain (68, 54.8%) were the most common symptoms. The most involved sinonasal site was the maxillary sinus (90, 72.6%). The overall survival rate at the three-month follow-up was 79.9%. COVID-19-related aggressive inflammatory response, uncontrolled glycemic level, and rampant use of steroids are the most important predisposing factors in developing COVID-19-associated invasive fungal sinusitis.