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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337887

ABSTRACT

Measles is the most contagious airborne viral infection and the leading cause of child death among vaccine-preventable diseases. We show here that aerosolized lipopeptide fusion inhibitors, derived from heptad-repeat regions of the measles virus (MeV) fusion protein, block respiratory MeV infection in a non-human primate model, the cynomolgus macaque. We used a custom-designed mesh nebulizer to ensure efficient aerosol delivery of peptides to the respiratory tract and demonstrated the absence of adverse effects and lung pathology in macaques. The nebulized peptide efficiently prevented MeV infection, resulting in the complete absence of MeV RNA, MeV-infected cells, and MeV-specific humoral responses in treated animals. This strategy provides an additional shield which complements vaccination to fight against respiratory infection, presenting a proof-of-concept for the aerosol delivery of fusion inhibitory peptides to protect against measles and other airborne viruses, including SARS-CoV-2, in case of high-risk exposure, that can be readily translated to human trials.

2.
Am J Transplant ; 22(5): 1442-1450, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707995

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have reduced ability to mount adequate antibody response after two doses of the COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. French health authorities have allowed a third booster dose (D3) for KTRs, but their response is heterogeneous and tools able to discriminate the responders are lacking. Anti-RBD IgG titers (chemiluminescence immunoassay), spike-specific cellular responses (IFN-γ-releasing assay, IGRA), and in vitro serum neutralization of the virus (the best available correlate of protection), were evaluated 7-14 days after the second dose (D2) of BNT162b2 vaccine in 93 KTRs. Among the 73 KTRs, whose serum did not neutralize SARS-CoV-2 in vitro after D2, 14 (19%) acquired this capacity after D3, and were considered as "responders." Exploratory univariate analysis identified short time from transplantation and high maintenance immunosuppression as detrimental factors for the response to D3. In addition, any of the presence of anti-RBD IgGs and/or positive IGRA after D2 was predictive of response to D3. By contrast, none of the KTRs with both a negative serology and IGRA responded to D3. In summary, routinely available bioassays performed after D2 allow identifying KTRs that will respond to a booster D3. These results pave the way for the personalization of vaccination strategy in KTRs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310439

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic of Covid-19 since its emergence in December 2019. The infection causes a severe acute respiratory syndrome and may also lead to central nervous system infection and neurological sequelae. We developed and characterized two new organotypic cultures from hamster brainstem and lung tissues that offer the unique opportunity to study the early steps of the pathogenesis and screening of antivirals. Using these models, we validated the early tropism of the virus in the lung and demonstrated that SARS-CoV2 can infect brainstem and cerebellum, mainly by targeting granular neurons. Viral infection induced specific interferon and innate immune responses with patterns specific to each organ along with apoptotic, necroptotic, and pyroptotic cell death. Overall, our data illustrate the potential of rapidly modeling complex tissue level interactions of viral infection in a newly emerged virus.

4.
Kidney Int ; 101(2): 390-402, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1540821

ABSTRACT

The level of protection achieved by the standard two doses of COVID-19 mRNA vaccines in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) remains unclear. To study this we used the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (REIN) Registry to compare the incidence and severity of 1474 cases of COVID-19 diagnosed in patients receiving MHD after none, one or two doses of vaccine. Vaccination significantly reduce COVID-19 incidence and severity, but 11% of patients infected after two doses still died. Lack of vaccinal protection in patients naïve for SARS-CoV-2 could be due to defective Tfh response [38% of patients with negative spike-specific CD4+ T-cell interferon gamma release assay] and failure to generate viral neutralizing titers of anti-spike receptor binding domain (RBD) IgGs (63% of patients with titer at or under 997 BAU/ml, defining low/no responders) after two doses of vaccine. To improve protection, a third dose of vaccine was administered to 75 patients [57 low/no responders, 18 high responders after two doses] from the ROMANOV cohort that prospectively enrolled patients receiving MHD vaccinated with BNT162b2 (Pfizer). Tolerance to the third dose was excellent. High responders to two doses did not generate more anti-RBD IgGs after three doses but had more side effects. Importantly, 31 (54%) of low/no responders to two doses reached neutralizing titers of anti-RBD IgGs after three doses. A positive interferon gamma release assay and/or suboptimal titer of anti-RBD IgGs after two doses were the only predictive variables for response to three doses in multivariate analysis. Thus, the standard scheme of vaccination insufficiently protects patients receiving MHD. Anti-RBD IgG and specific CD4+ T-cell response after two doses can guide personalized administration of the third dose, which improves the humoral response of SARS-CoV-2-naïve patients receiving MHD.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5809, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450282

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global pandemic of COVID-19 since its emergence in December 2019. The infection causes a severe acute respiratory syndrome and may also spread to central nervous system leading to neurological sequelae. We have developed and characterized two new organotypic cultures from hamster brainstem and lung tissues that offer a unique opportunity to study the early steps of viral infection and screening antivirals. These models are not dedicated to investigate how the virus reaches the brain. However, they allow validating the early tropism of the virus in the lungs and demonstrating that SARS-CoV-2 could infect the brainstem and the cerebellum, mainly by targeting granular neurons. Viral infection induces specific interferon and innate immune responses with patterns specific to each organ, along with cell death by apoptosis, necroptosis, and pyroptosis. Overall, our data illustrate the potential of rapid modeling of complex tissue-level interactions during infection by a newly emerged virus.


Subject(s)
Brain Stem/virology , Lung/virology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Brain Stem/cytology , Brain Stem/immunology , Brain Stem/pathology , Cricetinae , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Lung/cytology , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Neurons/virology , Organ Culture Techniques , Regulated Cell Death , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Viral Tropism
6.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411086

ABSTRACT

Our therapeutic arsenal against viruses is very limited and the current pandemic of SARS-CoV-2 highlights the critical need for effective antivirals against emerging coronaviruses. Cellular assays allowing a precise quantification of viral replication in high-throughput experimental settings are essential to the screening of chemical libraries and the selection of best antiviral chemical structures. To develop a reporting system for SARS-CoV-2 infection, we generated cell lines expressing a firefly luciferase maintained in an inactive form by a consensus cleavage site for the viral protease 3CLPro of coronaviruses, so that the luminescent biosensor is turned on upon 3CLPro expression or SARS-CoV-2 infection. This cellular assay was used to screen a metabolism-oriented library of 492 compounds to identify metabolic vulnerabilities of coronaviruses for developing innovative therapeutic strategies. In agreement with recent reports, inhibitors of pyrimidine biosynthesis were found to prevent SARS-CoV-2 replication. Among the top hits, we also identified the NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor Setanaxib. The anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of Setanaxib was further confirmed using ACE2-expressing human pulmonary cells Beas2B as well as human primary nasal epithelial cells. Altogether, these results validate our cell-based functional assay and the interest of screening libraries of different origins to identify inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 for drug repurposing or development.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Replication , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Drug Discovery , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Enzyme Activation , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Luciferases, Firefly/metabolism , Nasal Mucosa/virology , Pyrazolones/pharmacology , Pyridones/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Vero Cells , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
7.
mSphere ; 6(4): e0057121, 2021 08 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1329040

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is ongoing and has shown the community that flexible methods for rapidly identifying and screening candidate antivirals are needed. Assessing virus-neutralizing activity of human serum to monitor population immunity and response to infection and vaccination is key to pandemic control. We developed a virus neutralization platform strategy that relies only on bioinformatic and genetic information of the virus of interest. The platform uses viral envelope glycoprotein cDNAs to set up an assay that mimics multicycle infection but is safe and, therefore, amenable to biosafety level 2 (BSL2) conditions for viruses that require BSL3 facilities (e.g., SARS-CoV-1 and SARS-CoV-2). As a complement to this platform, we present a new cell-based immunofluorescent (CBI) assay that uses SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S)-expressing cells to accurately measure the neutralization potential of human sera and is readily adaptable to variants of concern. These methods should be useful additions to the tools for assessing antiviral immunity, whether acquired via natural infection or vaccines. IMPORTANCE Assays for rapid biosafety level 2 (BSL2) evaluation of neutralizing properties of antibodies acquired via natural infection or through vaccination is urgently needed. Here, we propose a combinatorial approach in which sera are screened for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S) binding using a cell-based immunofluorescent (CBI) assay, and positive samples are further evaluated in a pseudotyped viral multicycle infection-mimicking protocol under BSL2 conditions.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antiviral Agents/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vero Cells
8.
Nat Immunol ; 22(1): 25-31, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065903

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are associated with age1,2. Adults develop respiratory symptoms, which can progress to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in the most severe form, while children are largely spared from respiratory illness but can develop a life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C)3-5. Here, we show distinct antibody responses in children and adults after SARS-CoV-2 infection. Adult COVID-19 cohorts had anti-spike (S) IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies, as well as anti-nucleocapsid (N) IgG antibody, while children with and without MIS-C had reduced breadth of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies, predominantly generating IgG antibodies specific for the S protein but not the N protein. Moreover, children with and without MIS-C had reduced neutralizing activity as compared to both adult COVID-19 cohorts, indicating a reduced protective serological response. These results suggest a distinct infection course and immune response in children independent of whether they develop MIS-C, with implications for developing age-targeted strategies for testing and protecting the population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Young Adult
9.
J Biol Chem ; 296: 100111, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1066049

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a ß-coronavirus, is the causative agent of the COVID-19 pandemic. Like for other coronaviruses, its particles are composed of four structural proteins: spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleoprotein (N) proteins. The involvement of each of these proteins and their interactions are critical for assembly and production of ß-coronavirus particles. Here, we sought to characterize the interplay of SARS-CoV-2 structural proteins during the viral assembly process. By combining biochemical and imaging assays in infected versus transfected cells, we show that E and M regulate intracellular trafficking of S as well as its intracellular processing. Indeed, the imaging data reveal that S is relocalized at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-Golgi intermediate compartment (ERGIC) or Golgi compartments upon coexpression of E or M, as observed in SARS-CoV-2-infected cells, which prevents syncytia formation. We show that a C-terminal retrieval motif in the cytoplasmic tail of S is required for its M-mediated retention in the ERGIC, whereas E induces S retention by modulating the cell secretory pathway. We also highlight that E and M induce a specific maturation of N-glycosylation of S, independently of the regulation of its localization, with a profile that is observed both in infected cells and in purified viral particles. Finally, we show that E, M, and N are required for optimal production of virus-like-particles. Altogether, these results highlight how E and M proteins may influence the properties of S proteins and promote the assembly of SARS-CoV-2 viral particles.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Nucleocapsid Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Matrix Proteins/genetics , Virion/growth & development , Virus Assembly/physiology , Animals , Biomimetic Materials/chemistry , Biomimetic Materials/metabolism , Cell Line, Tumor , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/metabolism , Endoplasmic Reticulum/ultrastructure , Endoplasmic Reticulum/virology , Gene Expression , Golgi Apparatus/metabolism , Golgi Apparatus/ultrastructure , Golgi Apparatus/virology , HEK293 Cells , Hepatocytes/metabolism , Hepatocytes/ultrastructure , Hepatocytes/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism , Virion/genetics , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Virus Release/physiology
10.
medRxiv ; 2020 Jul 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900743

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are associated with age. While children are largely spared from severe respiratory disease, they can present with a SARS-CoV-2-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) similar to Kawasaki's disease. Here, we show distinct antibody (Ab) responses in children with MIS-C compared to adults with severe COVID-19 causing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and those who recovered from mild disease. There was a reduced breadth and specificity of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies in MIS-C patients compared to the COVID patient groups; MIS-C predominantly generated IgG Abs specific for the Spike (S) protein but not for the nucleocapsid (N) protein, while both COVID-19 cohorts had anti-S IgG, IgM and IgA Abs, as well as anti-N IgG Abs. Moreover, MIS-C patients had reduced neutralizing activity compared to COVID-19 cohorts, indicating a reduced protective serological response. These results suggest a distinct infection course and immune response in children and adults who develop severe disease, with implications for optimizing treatments based on symptom and age.

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