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1.
J Clin Med ; 11(17)2022 Aug 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006089

ABSTRACT

The measurement of specific T-cell responses can be a useful tool for COVID-19 diagnostics and clinical management. In this study, we evaluated the IFN-γ T-cell response against the main SARS-CoV-2 antigens (spike, nucleocapsid and membrane) in acute and convalescent individuals classified according to severity, and in vaccinated and unvaccinated controls. IgG against spike and nucleocapsid were also measured. Spike antigen triggered the highest number of T-cell responses. Acute patients showed a low percentage of positive responses when compared to convalescent (71.6% vs. 91.7%, respectively), but increased during hospitalization and with severity. Some convalescent patients showed an IFN-γ T-cell response more than 200 days after diagnosis. Only half of the vaccinated individuals displayed an IFN-γ T-cell response after the second dose. IgG response was found in a higher percentage of individuals compared to IFN-γ T-cell responses, and moderate correlations between both responses were seen. However, in some acute COVID-19 patients specific T-cell response was detected, but not IgG production. We found that the chances of an IFN-γ T-cell response against SARS-CoV-2 is low during acute phase, but may increase over time, and that only half of the vaccinated individuals had an IFN-γ T-cell response after the second dose.

2.
Viruses ; 14(7)2022 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911653

ABSTRACT

The implementation of vaccination among healthcare workers (HCWs) allowed the management of the pandemic in a manner that differed from that in the first waves. It has been demonstrated that the mRNA vaccines elicit good humoral responses but that there are still breakthrough infections. In summer 2021, a fifth wave emerged, despite the good coverage of HCWs in Spain. We aimed to study the SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody levels as a marker to predict the possibility of Delta variant infections after vaccination after a seroepidemiological campaign. Of the 5000 participants, a total of 4902 (98.04%) showed a positive result in the serological anti-S test and only 98 (1.96%) were negative. Among the 4368 fully vaccinated participants, only in five cases was the serology negative. Of the total number of participants that received antibody results during the study, 162 were PCR positive in the subsequent two months. Among these, 151 were fully vaccinated (two doses). Significant differences between antibody BAU/mL levels were found between PCR positive and non-PCR positive participants (p < 0.01). The median of BAU/mL was higher in those vaccinated patients with no infection (1260 BAU/mL; 465-2080) versus infected patients (661 BAU/mL; 361-2080). These data support the idea that vaccines play an important role in the control of the pandemic, especially among HCWs at the time of the Delta variant circulation. More studies with other variants of concern must be performed in order to establish a correlation between the levels of IgG and the new infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Follow-Up Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
3.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244348, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) around the world has caused a global pandemic, infecting millions of individuals, with an unprecedented impact in health care systems worldwide. Healthcare workers are one of the risk groups that need to be well protected, due to their strategic role in patient management, presently and in prevention of healthcare needs for future outbreaks. Here, we present the results of the first SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence study in the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona, Spain. METHODS: IgG SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were analyzed in serum samples from 7563 healthcare workers of the Northern Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. Samples were collected after the first pandemic wave (from May 4th to May 22nd, 2020) and were analyzed by automated chemiluminescence assays. All samples were tested for IgG anti-S1/S2. Participant samples with negative or equivocal results but with analytical signals above the limit of detection and/or previously confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis were also tested for IgG anti-Nucleocapsid. RESULTS: A total of 779 of 7563 (10.3%) healthcare workers were positive for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (specific for either S1/S2 or N antigens). No significant differences were observed between those working at primary care or at the reference hospital. Interestingly, among 341 participants with a confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, 36 (10.55%) tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 IgG (both S1/S2 and recombinant N antigen). CONCLUSION: Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG in the healthcare workers of the North Metropolitan Area of Barcelona was higher than in the general population in the same geographical area. Safety measures have to be stressed in order to protect these essential workers from future pandemic waves.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Spain , Young Adult
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