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1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11855, 2022 Jul 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1960495

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), remains to spread worldwide. COVID-19 is characterized by the striking high mortality in elderly; however, its mechanistic insights remain unclear. Systemic thrombosis has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, and lung microangiopathy in association with endothelial cells (ECs) injury has been reported by post-mortem analysis of the lungs. Here, we experimentally investigated the SARS-CoV-2 infection in cultured human ECs, and performed a comparative analysis for post-infection molecular events using early passage and replicative senescent ECs. We found that; (1) SARS-CoV-2 infects ECs but does not replicate and disappears in 72 hours without causing severe cell damage, (2) Senescent ECs are highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection, (3) SARS-CoV-2 infection alters various genes expression, which could cause EC dysfunctions, (4) More genes expression is affected in senescent ECs by SARS-CoV-2 infection than in early passage ECs, which might causes further exacerbated dysfunction in senescent ECs. These data suggest that sustained EC dysfunctions due to SARS-CoV-2 infection may contribute to the microangiopathy in the lungs, leading to deteriorated inflammation and thrombosis in COVID-19. Our data also suggest a possible causative role of EC senescence in the aggravated disease in elder COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Thrombosis , Aged , Disease Susceptibility/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis/pathology
2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(650): eabn7737, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807308

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant contains an unusually high number of mutations in the spike protein, raising concerns of escape from vaccines, convalescent serum, and therapeutic drugs. Here, we analyzed the degree to which Omicron pseudo-virus evades neutralization by serum or therapeutic antibodies. Serum samples obtained 3 months after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination exhibited 18-fold lower neutralization titers against Omicron than parental virus. Convalescent serum samples from individuals infected with the Alpha and Delta variants allowed similar frequencies of Omicron breakthrough infections. Domain-wise analysis using chimeric spike proteins revealed that this efficient evasion was primarily achieved by mutations clustered in the receptor binding domain but that multiple mutations in the N-terminal domain contributed as well. Omicron escaped a therapeutic cocktail of imdevimab and casirivimab, whereas sotrovimab, which targets a conserved region to avoid viral mutation, remains effective. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) decoys are another virus-neutralizing drug modality that are free, at least in theory, from complete escape. Deep mutational analysis demonstrated that an engineered ACE2 molecule prevented escape for each single-residue mutation in the receptor binding domain, similar to immunized serum. Engineered ACE2 neutralized Omicron comparably to the Wuhan strain and also showed a therapeutic effect against Omicron infection in hamsters and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Similar to previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, some sarbecoviruses showed high sensitivity against engineered ACE2, confirming the therapeutic value against diverse variants, including those that are yet to emerge.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int Heart J ; 63(2): 226-234, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1770813

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic occurred in several countries, making the conventional medical system difficult to maintain. Recent recommendations aim to prevent nosocomial infections and infections among health care workers. Therefore, establishing a cardiovascular medical system under an emergency for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is desired. This study aimed to determine the relationship between prognosis and door-to-balloon time (DBT) shortening based on the severity on arrival.This retrospective, multi-center, observational study included 1,127 consecutive patients with STEMI. These patients were transported by emergency medical services and underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients were stratified according to the Killip classification: Killip 1 (n = 738) and Killip ≥ 2 (n = 389) groups.Patients in the Killip ≥ 2 group were older, with more females, and more severity on arrival than those in the Killip 1 group. The 30-day mortality rate in the Killip 1 and Killip ≥ 2 groups was 2.2% and 18.0%, respectively. The Killip ≥ 2 group had a significant difference in the 30-day mortality between patients with DBT ≤ 90 minutes and those with DBT > 90 minutes; however, this did not occur in the Killip 1 group. Furthermore, multivariate analysis revealed that DBT ≤ 90 minutes was not a significant predictive factor in the Killip 1 group; however, it was an independent predictive factor in the Killip ≥ 2 group.DBT shortening affected the 30-day mortality in STEMI patients with Killip ≥ 2, although not those with Killip 1.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Medical Services , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Female , Humans , Retrospective Studies , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction/surgery , Time Factors
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296726

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron (B.1.1.529) contains about 30 mutations in the spike protein and the numerous mutations raise the concern of escape from vaccine, convalescent sera and therapeutic drugs. Here we analyze the alteration of their neutralizing titer with Omicron pseudovirus. Sera of 3 months after double BNT162b2 vaccination exhibite ~27-fold lower neutralization titers against Omicron than D614G mutation. Neutralization titer is also reduced in convalescent sera from Alpha and Delta patients. However, some Delta patients have relatively preserved neutralization activity up to the level of 3-month double BNT162b2 vaccination. Omicron escapes from the cocktail of imdevimab and casirivimab, whereas sotrovimab that targets the conserved region to prevent viral escape is effective to Omicron similarly to the original SARS-CoV-2. The ACE2 decoy is another modality that neutralize the virus independently of mutational escape and Omicron is also sensitive to the engineered ACE2.

5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3802, 2021 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387351

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has mutated during the global pandemic leading to viral adaptation to medications and vaccinations. Here we describe an engineered human virus receptor, ACE2, by mutagenesis and screening for binding to the receptor binding domain (RBD). Three cycles of random mutagenesis and cell sorting achieved sub-nanomolar affinity to RBD. Our structural data show that the enhanced affinity comes from better hydrophobic packing and hydrogen-bonding geometry at the interface. Additional disulfide mutations caused the fixing of a closed ACE2 conformation to avoid off-target effects of protease activity, and also improved structural stability. Our engineered ACE2 neutralized SARS-CoV-2 at a 100-fold lower concentration than wild type; we also report that no escape mutants emerged in the co-incubation after 15 passages. Therapeutic administration of engineered ACE2 protected hamsters from SARS-CoV-2 infection, decreased lung virus titers and pathology. Our results provide evidence of a therapeutic potential of engineered ACE2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cells, Cultured , Cricetinae , Crystallography, X-Ray , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Male , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Engineering/methods , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
6.
J Cardiol ; 77(3): 239-244, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has a significant impact on daily practice in cardiovascular medicine. The preparedness of healthcare workers (HCWs) can affect the spread of infection and the maintenance of the healthcare system. This study aimed to investigate the knowledge, perception, and level of confidence regarding COVID-19 care among HCWs involved in cardiovascular medicine. METHODS: A cross-sectional, web-based study about COVID-19 was performed between April 22 and May 7, 2020, among 311 HCWs in cardiovascular departments. The demographic information, COVID-19-related knowledge, and perception and level of confidence toward COVID-19 care were assessed. RESULTS: The median age of the participants was 38 years, and 215 (69.8%) were male. There were 134 (43.1%) physicians and 177 (56.9%) non-physician HCWs. The HCWs, especially non-physician HCWs, had insufficient knowledge about infection-prevention measures for COVID-19, such as how to isolate patients with COVID-19, how to use personal protective equipment, and how to prevent infection during aerosol-generating procedures. Most HCWs showed a low level of confidence toward COVID-19 care, and such poor confidence was associated with the lack of knowledge on optimal infection-prevention measures. CONCLUSIONS: This survey revealed the lack of knowledge about adequate infection-prevention measures for COVID-19. More attention should be paid to the preparedness of HCWs, and educating and supporting HCWs involved in cardiovascular medicine is an urgent need.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cardiology Service, Hospital , Clinical Competence , Adult , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/transmission , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
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