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1.
Sci Adv ; 8(16): eabm3952, 2022 Apr 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807300

ABSTRACT

Brain imaging is essential to the clinical management of patients with ischemic stroke. Timely and accessible neuroimaging, however, can be limited in clinical stroke pathways. Here, portable magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) acquired at very low magnetic field strength (0.064 T) is used to obtain actionable bedside neuroimaging for 50 confirmed patients with ischemic stroke. Low-field pMRI detected infarcts in 45 (90%) patients across cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar structures. Lesions as small as 4 mm were captured. Infarcts appeared as hyperintense regions on T2-weighted, fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences. Stroke volume measurements were consistent across pMRI sequences and between low-field pMRI and conventional high-field MRI studies. Low-field pMRI stroke volumes significantly correlated with stroke severity and functional outcome at discharge. These results validate the use of low-field pMRI to obtain clinically useful imaging of stroke, setting the stage for use in resource-limited environments.

3.
JAMA Neurol ; 2020 Sep 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-746366

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Neuroimaging is a key step in the clinical evaluation of brain injury. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems operate at high-strength magnetic fields (1.5-3 T) that require strict, access-controlled environments. Limited access to timely neuroimaging remains a key structural barrier to effectively monitor the occurrence and progression of neurological injury in intensive care settings. Recent advances in low-field MRI technology have allowed for the acquisition of clinically meaningful imaging outside of radiology suites and in the presence of ferromagnetic materials at the bedside. OBJECTIVE: To perform an assessment of brain injury in critically ill patients in intensive care unit settings, using a portable, low-field MRI device at the bedside. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective, single-center cohort study of 50 patients admitted to the neuroscience or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) intensive care units at Yale New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut, from October 30, 2019, to May 20, 2020. Patients were eligible if they presented with neurological injury or alteration, no contraindications for conventional MRI, and a body habitus not exceeding the scanner's 30-cm vertical opening. Diagnosis of COVID-19 was determined by positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 polymerase chain reaction nasopharyngeal swab result. EXPOSURES: Portable MRI in an intensive care unit room. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Demographic, clinical, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Brain imaging findings are described. RESULTS: Point-of-care MRI examinations were performed on 50 patients (16 women [32%]; mean [SD] age, 59 [12] years [range, 20-89 years]). Patients presented with ischemic stroke (n = 9), hemorrhagic stroke (n = 12), subarachnoid hemorrhage (n = 2), traumatic brain injury (n = 3), brain tumor (n = 4), and COVID-19 with altered mental status (n = 20). Examinations were acquired at a median of 5 (range, 0-37) days after intensive care unit admission. Diagnostic-grade T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, and diffusion-weighted imaging sequences were obtained for 37, 48, 45, and 32 patients, respectively. Neuroimaging findings were detected in 29 of 30 patients who did not have COVID-19 (97%), and 8 of 20 patients with COVID-19 (40%) demonstrated abnormalities. There were no adverse events or complications during deployment of the portable MRI or scanning in an intensive care unit room. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This single-center series of patients with critical illness in an intensive care setting demonstrated the feasibility of low-field, portable MRI. These findings demonstrate the potential role of portable MRI to obtain neuroimaging in complex clinical care settings.

5.
J Neurointerv Surg ; 12(11): 1039-1044, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-742246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many centers altered stroke triage protocols for the protection of their providers. However, the effect of workflow changes on stroke patients receiving mechanical thrombectomy (MT) has not been systematically studied. METHODS: A prospective international study was launched at the initiation of the COVID-19 pandemic. All included centers participated in the Stroke Thrombectomy and Aneurysm Registry (STAR) and Endovascular Neurosurgery Research Group (ENRG). Data was collected during the peak months of the COVID-19 surge at each site. Collected data included patient and disease characteristics. A generalized linear model with logit link function was used to estimate the effect of general anesthesia (GA) on in-hospital mortality and discharge outcome controlling for confounders. RESULTS: 458 patients and 28 centers were included from North America, South America, and Europe. Five centers were in high-COVID burden counties (HCC) in which 9/104 (8.7%) of patients were positive for COVID-19 compared with 4/354 (1.1%) in low-COVID burden counties (LCC) (P<0.001). 241 patients underwent pre-procedure GA. Compared with patients treated awake, GA patients had longer door to reperfusion time (138 vs 100 min, P=<0.001). On multivariate analysis, GA was associated with higher probability of in-hospital mortality (RR 1.871, P=0.029) and lower probability of functional independence at discharge (RR 0.53, P=0.015). CONCLUSION: We observed a low rate of COVID-19 infection among stroke patients undergoing MT in LCC. Overall, more than half of the patients underwent intubation prior to MT, leading to prolonged door to reperfusion time, higher in-hospital mortality, and lower likelihood of functional independence at discharge.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Stroke/therapy , Thrombectomy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anesthesia, General , COVID-19 , Endovascular Procedures , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Independent Living , Linear Models , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Reperfusion , Thrombectomy/methods , Treatment Outcome , Workflow
6.
Stroke ; 51(9): 2664-2673, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-695899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports suggest fewer patients with stroke symptoms are presenting to hospitals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. We quantify trends in stroke code calls and treatments at 3 Connecticut hospitals during the local emergence of COVID-19 and examine patient characteristics and stroke process measures at a Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) before and during the pandemic. METHODS: Stroke code activity was analyzed from January 1 to April 28, 2020, and corresponding dates in 2019. Piecewise linear regression and spline models identified when stroke codes in 2020 began to decline and when they fell below 2019 levels. Patient-level data were analyzed in February versus March and April 2020 at the CSC to identify differences in patient characteristics during the pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 822 stroke codes were activated at 3 hospitals from January 1 to April 28, 2020. The number of stroke codes/wk decreased by 12.8/wk from February 18 to March 16 (P=0.0360) with nadir of 39.6% of expected stroke codes called from March 10 to 16 (30% decrease in total stroke codes during the pandemic weeks in 2020 versus 2019). There was no commensurate increase in within-network telestroke utilization. Compared with before the pandemic (n=167), pandemic-epoch stroke code patients at the CSC (n=211) were more likely to have histories of hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and substance abuse; no or public health insurance; lower median household income; and to live in the CSC city (P<0.05). There was no difference in age, sex, race/ethnicity, stroke severity, time to presentation, door-to-needle/door-to-reperfusion times, or discharge modified Rankin Scale. CONCLUSIONS: Hospital presentation for stroke-like symptoms decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic, without differences in stroke severity or early outcomes. Individuals living outside of the CSC city were less likely to present for stroke codes at the CSC during the pandemic. Public health initiatives to increase awareness of presenting for non-COVID-19 medical emergencies such as stroke during the pandemic are critical.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Time-to-Treatment/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Connecticut/epidemiology , Coronary Artery Disease/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Dyslipidemias/epidemiology , Emergency Medical Services , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Income , Insurance, Health , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/physiopathology , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Male , Medically Uninsured , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Telemedicine , Thrombectomy , Thrombolytic Therapy
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