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1.
Clinical and Translational Neuroscience ; 6(2):10, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1776150

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), may lead to acute and chronic neurological symptoms (NeuroCOVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 may spread from the respiratory tract to the central nervous system as the central nervous system (CNS) of certain patients dying from COVID-19 shows virus-related neuropathological changes. Moreover, a syndrome found in many patients having passed a SARS-CoV-2 infection, which is termed long COVID and characterized by lasting fatigue and other diverse clinical features, may well have some of its pathological correlates inside the CNS. Although knowledge on the routes of SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and the pathophysiology of NeuroCOVID have increased, the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. This includes the key question: to understand if observed CNS damage is a direct cause of viral damage or indirectly mediated by an overshooting neuroimmune response.

2.
Stem Cell Reports ; 17(2): 307-320, 2022 02 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1712991

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications are common in COVID-19. Although SARS-CoV-2 has been detected in patients' brain tissues, its entry routes and resulting consequences are not well understood. Here, we show a pronounced upregulation of interferon signaling pathways of the neurovascular unit in fatal COVID-19. By investigating the susceptibility of human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived brain capillary endothelial-like cells (BCECs) to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we found that BCECs were infected and recapitulated transcriptional changes detected in vivo. While BCECs were not compromised in their paracellular tightness, we found SARS-CoV-2 in the basolateral compartment in transwell assays after apical infection, suggesting active replication and transcellular transport of virus across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro. Moreover, entry of SARS-CoV-2 into BCECs could be reduced by anti-spike-, anti-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-, and anti-neuropilin-1 (NRP1)-specific antibodies or the transmembrane protease serine subtype 2 (TMPRSS2) inhibitor nafamostat. Together, our data provide strong support for SARS-CoV-2 brain entry across the BBB resulting in increased interferon signaling.


Subject(s)
Blood-Brain Barrier/virology , Central Nervous System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Virus Internalization , Antibodies/pharmacology , Benzamidines/pharmacology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Endothelial Cells/cytology , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/virology , Guanidines/pharmacology , Humans , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/cytology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , Models, Biological , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Internalization/drug effects
3.
von Stillfried, Saskia, Bülow, Roman David, Röhrig, Rainer, Boor, Peter, Böcker, Jana, Schmidt, Jens, Tholen, Pauline, Majeed, Raphael, Wienströer, Jan, Weis, Joachim, Bremer, Juliane, Knüchel, Ruth, Breitbach, Anna, Cacchi, Claudio, Freeborn, Benita, Wucherpfennig, Sophie, Spring, Oliver, Braun, Georg, Römmele, Christoph, Märkl, Bruno, Claus, Rainer, Dhillon, Christine, Schaller, Tina, Sipos, Eva, Hirschbühl, Klaus, Wittmann, Michael, Kling, Elisabeth, Kröncke, Thomas, Heppner, Frank L.; Meinhardt, Jenny, Radbruch, Helena, Streit, Simon, Horst, David, Elezkurtaj, Sefer, Quaas, Alexander, Göbel, Heike, Hansen, Torsten, Titze, Ulf, Lorenzen, Johann, Reuter, Thomas, Woloszyn, Jaroslaw, Baretton, Gustavo, Hilsenbeck, Julia, Meinhardt, Matthias, Pablik, Jessica, Sommer, Linna, Holotiuk, Olaf, Meinel, Meike, Mahlke, Nina, Esposito, Irene, Crudele, Graziano, Seidl, Maximilian, Amann, Kerstin U.; Coras, Roland, Hartmann, Arndt, Eichhorn, Philip, Haller, Florian, Lange, Fabienne, Schmid, Kurt Werner, Ingenwerth, Marc, Rawitzer, Josefine, Theegarten, Dirk, Birngruber, Christoph G.; Wild, Peter, Gradhand, Elise, Smith, Kevin, Werner, Martin, Schilling, Oliver, Acker, Till, Gattenlöhner, Stefan, Stadelmann, Christine, Metz, Imke, Franz, Jonas, Stork, Lidia, Thomas, Carolina, Zechel, Sabrina, Ströbel, Philipp, Wickenhauser, Claudia, Fathke, Christine, Harder, Anja, Ondruschka, Benjamin, Dietz, Eric, Edler, Carolin, Fitzek, Antonia, Fröb, Daniela, Heinemann, Axel, Heinrich, Fabian, Klein, Anke, Kniep, Inga, Lohner, Larissa, Möbius, Dustin, Püschel, Klaus, Schädler, Julia, Schröder, Ann-Sophie, Sperhake, Jan-Peter, Aepfelbacher, Martin, Fischer, Nicole, Lütgehetmann, Marc, Pfefferle, Susanne, Glatzel, Markus, Krasemann, Susanne, Matschke, Jakob, Jonigk, Danny, Werlein, Christopher, Schirmacher, Peter, Domke, Lisa Maria, Hartmann, Laura, Klein, Isabel Madeleine, Schwab, Constantin, Röcken, Christoph, Friemann, Johannes, Langer, Dorothea, Roth, Wilfried, Strobl, Stephanie, Rudelius, Martina, Stock, Konrad Friedrich, Weichert, Wilko, Delbridge, Claire, Kasajima, Atsuko, Kuhn, Peer-Hendrik, Slotta-Huspenina, Julia, Weirich, Gregor, Barth, Peter, Wardelmann, Eva, Evert, Katja, Büttner, Andreas, Manhart, Johannes, Nigbur, Stefan, Bittmann, Iris, Fend, Falko, Bösmüller, Hans, Granai, Massimo, Klingel, Karin, Warm, Verena, Steinestel, Konrad, Umathum, Vincent Gottfried, Rosenwald, Andreas, Kurz, Florian, Vogt, Niklas.
The Lancet Regional Health - Europe ; : 100330, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1693139

ABSTRACT

Summary Background Autopsies are an important tool in medicine, dissecting disease pathophysiology and causes of death. In COVID-19, autopsies revealed e.g., the effects on pulmonary (micro)vasculature or the nervous system, systemic viral spread, or the interplay with the immune system. To facilitate multicentre autopsy-based studies and provide a central hub supporting autopsy centres, researchers, and data analyses and reporting, in April 2020 the German COVID-19 Autopsy Registry (DeRegCOVID) was launched. Methods The electronic registry uses a web-based electronic case report form. Participation is voluntary and biomaterial remains at the respective site (decentralized biobanking). As of October 2021, the registry included N=1129 autopsy cases, with 69271 single data points including information on 18674 available biospecimens gathered from 29 German sites. Findings In the N=1095 eligible records, the male-to-female ratio was 1·8:1, with peaks at 65-69 and 80-84 years in males and >85 years in females. The analysis of the chain of events directly leading to death revealed COVID-19 as the underlying cause of death in 86% of the autopsy cases, whereas in 14% COVID-19 was a concomitant disease. The most common immediate cause of death was diffuse alveolar damage, followed by multi-organ failure. The registry supports several scientific projects, public outreach and provides reports to the federal health authorities, leading to legislative adaptation of the German Infection Protection Act, facilitating the performance of autopsies during pandemics. Interpretation A national autopsy registry can provide multicentre quantitative information on COVID-19 deaths on a national level, supporting medical research, political decision-making and public discussion. Funding German Federal Ministries of Education and Research and Health. Hintergrund: Obduktionen sind ein wichtiges Instrument in der Medizin, um die Pathophysiologie von Krankheiten und Todesursachen zu untersuchen. Im Rahmen von COVID-19 wurden durch Obduktionen z.B. die Auswirkungen auf die pulmonale Mikrovaskulatur, das Nervensystem, die systemische Virusausbreitung, und das Zusammenspiel mit dem Immunsystem untersucht. Um multizentrische, auf Obduktionen basierende Studien zu erleichtern und eine zentrale Anlaufstelle zu schaffen, die Obduktionszentren, Forscher sowie Datenanalysen und -berichte unterstützt, wurde im April 2020 das deutsche COVID-19-Autopsieregister (DeRegCOVID) ins Leben gerufen. Methoden: Das elektronische Register verwendet ein webbasiertes elektronisches Fallberichtsformular. Die Teilnahme ist freiwillig und das Biomaterial verbleibt am jeweiligen Standort (dezentrales Biobanking). Im Oktober 2021 umfasste das Register N=1129 Obduktionsfälle mit 69271 einzelnen Datenpunkten, die Informationen über 18674 verfügbare Bioproben enthielten, die von 29 deutschen Standorten gesammelt wurden. Ergebnisse: In den N=1095 ausgewerteten Datensätzen betrug das Verhältnis von Männern zu Frauen 1,8:1 mit Spitzenwerten bei 65-69 und 80-84 Jahren bei Männern und >85 Jahren bei Frauen. Die Analyse der Sequenz der unmittelbar zum Tod führenden Ereignisse ergab, dass in 86 % der Obduktionsfälle COVID-19 die zugrunde liegende Todesursache war, während in 14 % der Fälle COVID-19 eine Begleiterkrankung war. Die häufigste unmittelbare Todesursache war der diffuse Alveolarschaden, gefolgt von Multiorganversagen. Das Register unterstützt mehrere wissenschaftliche Projekte, die Öffentlichkeitsarbeit und liefert Berichte an die Bundesgesundheitsbehörden, was zu einer Anpassung des deutschen Infektionsschutzgesetzes führte und die Durchführung von Obduktionen in Pandemien erleichtert. Interpretation: Ein nationales Obduktionsregister kann multizentrische quantitative Informationen über COVID-19-Todesfälle auf nationaler Ebene liefern und damit die medizinische Forschung, die politische Entscheidungsfindung und die öffentliche Diskussion unterstützen. Finanzierung: Bundesministerien für Bildung und Forschung und für Gesundheit.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314512

ABSTRACT

Neurological complications are common in COVID-19 patients. Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been detected in patients’ brain tissues, its entry routes and resulting consequences are not well understood. Here, we report that the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and its microenvironment show pronounced upregulation of interferon signaling pathways in fatal COVID-19. Moreover, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived brain capillary endothelial-like cells (BCECs) were susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and recapitulated the transcriptional changes detected in vivo . While BCECs were not compromised in their paracellular tightness, we found SARS-CoV-2 in the basolateral compartment in transwell assays after apical infection, suggesting active transcytosis of the virus across the BBB in vitro . SARS-CoV-2 entry into BCECs could be reduced by anti-spike-, anti-ACE2- and anti-NRP1-specific antibodies or the TMPRSS2 inhibitor nafamostat. Together, our data provide direct evidence for SARS-CoV-2 brain entry across the BBB resulting in an increase in interferon signaling.

5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310513

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic with significant mortality. Accurate information on the specific circumstances of death and whether patients died from or with SARS-CoV-2 is scarce. Methods: To distinguish COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 deaths, we performed a systematic review of 735 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in Hamburg, Germany, from March to December 2020, using conventional autopsy, ultrasound-guided minimally invasive autopsy, postmortem computed tomography and medical records. Statistical analyses including multiple logistic regression were used to compare both cohorts. Findings: 84.1% (n=618) were classified as COVID-19 deaths, 6.4% (n=47) as non-COVID-19 deaths, 9.5% (n=70) remained unclear. Median age of COVID-19 deaths was 83.0 years, 54.4% were male. In the autopsy group (n=283), the majority died of pneumonia and/or diffuse alveolar damage (73.6%;n=187). Thromboses were found in 39.2% (n=62/158 cases), pulmonary embolism in 22.1% (n=56/253 cases). In 2020, annual mortality in Hamburg was about 5.5% higher than in the previous 20 years, of which 3.4% (n=618) represented COVID-19 deaths. Interpretation Our study highlights the need for mortality surveillance and postmortem examinations. The vast majority of individuals who died directly from SARS-CoV-2 infection were of advanced age and had multiple comorbidities.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306659

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 causes neurological symptoms that can be potentially life-threatening in up to 67 % of the patients. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 associated encephalopathy, the involved immune cells, their spatial distribution and their cellular interactions during disease remain largely unclear. In this study, we performed a 38-biomarker imaging mass cytometry analysis of the brain stem from 25 patients and additional controls to understand the local immune response during SARS-CoV-2 infection at a spatially resolved, high-dimensional single-cell level. Importantly, utilizing an unbiased image segmentation and cell classification pipeline, we observed a significant immune activation in the central nervous system (CNS) and identified novel context-specific CD8 T cell and microglial clusters. Spatially resolved single-cell analysis identified distinct phenotypes of T cells and microglial clusters, their presence in specific anatomical regions and their cellular interactions. Our analysis further highlights microglial nodules and perivascular immune cell clusters as key sites of the local immune response. It also demonstrates that disease-associated neuroinflammation is associated with severe axonal damage as a structural basis for the neurologic deficits. Finally, we identified compartment- and cluster-specific immune checkpoints that can be used for future therapeutic interventions.

7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-320978

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can cause acute and chronic neurological symptoms. The underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, the involved immune cells, their spatial distribution, cellular interactions and the role of virus tropism remain largely unclear. Here, we deeply interrogated the brain stem and olfactory bulb in COVID-19 patients with imaging mass cytometry to understand the local immune response at a spatially resolved, high-dimensional single-cell level. We observed significant immune activation in the CNS and identified distinct phenotypes of T cells and microglial clusters, their presence in specific anatomical regions and context-specific cellular interactions. Microglial nodules and perivascular immune cell clusters constitute key sites of the local immune response, with viral antigen present in ACE2-expressing cells in the perivascular compartment. Disease-associated neuroinflammation is associated with astrogliosis and severe axonal damage as a structural basis for the neurologic deficits. Finally, we identify compartment- and cluster-specific immune checkpoints that can be targeted for future therapeutic interventions.Funding: This project was supported by grants from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, GermanResearch Foundation) (SFB 992, SFB1160, SFB/TRR167, SFB/TRR179, German Excellency strategyCIBSS - EXC-2189– Project ID390939984) and special research funds from the Ministry for Science, Research and Art of Baden-Wuerttemberg dedicated to “COVID-19 research” and “Neuroinflammation”.B.B. was further supported by DFG grant BE-5496/5-1 and M.P. was further supported by the Sobek Foundation, the Ernst-Jung Foundation, the Reinhart-Koselleck-Grant and Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz-Prize.H.E.M. was supported by DFG ME-3644/5-1.Ethical Approval: The analyses were performed with the approval of the Institutional Review Boards (Ethic Committee of the Albert-Ludwigs-University, Freiburg: 322/20, 10008/09;Ethics Committee of the Hamburg Chamber of Physicians: WF-051/20, PV7311). The study was performed in agreement with the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki (2013).Conflict of Interest: None to declare.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19342, 2021 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442803

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic with significant mortality. Accurate information on the specific circumstances of death and whether patients died from or with SARS-CoV-2 is scarce. To distinguish COVID-19 from non-COVID-19 deaths, we performed a systematic review of 735 SARS-CoV-2-associated deaths in Hamburg, Germany, from March to December 2020, using conventional autopsy, ultrasound-guided minimally invasive autopsy, postmortem computed tomography and medical records. Statistical analyses including multiple logistic regression were used to compare both cohorts. 84.1% (n = 618) were classified as COVID-19 deaths, 6.4% (n = 47) as non-COVID-19 deaths, 9.5% (n = 70) remained unclear. Median age of COVID-19 deaths was 83.0 years, 54.4% were male. In the autopsy group (n = 283), the majority died of pneumonia and/or diffuse alveolar damage (73.6%; n = 187). Thromboses were found in 39.2% (n = 62/158 cases), pulmonary embolism in 22.1% (n = 56/253 cases). In 2020, annual mortality in Hamburg was about 5.5% higher than in the previous 20 years, of which 3.4% (n = 618) represented COVID-19 deaths. Our study highlights the need for mortality surveillance and postmortem examinations. The vast majority of individuals who died directly from SARS-CoV-2 infection were of advanced age and had multiple comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Autopsy , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/pathology , Alveolar Epithelial Cells/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Pneumonia , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Thrombosis
9.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(9): e1340, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1372714

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: T cells have an essential role in the antiviral defence. Public T-cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes are expanded in a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients. We set out to exploit their potential use as read-out for COVID-19 T-cell immune responses. METHODS: We searched for COVID-19-associated T-cell clones with public TCRs, as defined by identical complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) beta chain amino acid sequence that can be reproducibly detected in the blood of COVID-19 patients. Of the different clonotype identification algorithms used in this study, deep sequencing of brain tissue of five patients with fatal COVID-19 delivered 68 TCR clonotypes with superior representation across 140 immune repertoires of unrelated COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Mining of immune repertoires from subjects not previously exposed to the virus showed that these clonotypes can be found in almost 20% of pre-pandemic immune repertoires of healthy subjects, with lower representation in repertoires from risk groups like individuals above the age of 60 years or patients with cancer. CONCLUSION: Together, our data show that at least a proportion of the SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response is mediated by public TCRs that are present in repertoires of unexposed individuals. The lower representation of these clones in repertoires of risk groups or failure to expand such clones may contribute to more unfavorable clinical COVID-19 courses.

10.
Immunity ; 54(7): 1594-1610.e11, 2021 07 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281436

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 can cause severe neurological symptoms, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms are unclear. Here, we interrogated the brain stems and olfactory bulbs in postmortem patients who had COVID-19 using imaging mass cytometry to understand the local immune response at a spatially resolved, high-dimensional, single-cell level and compared their immune map to non-COVID respiratory failure, multiple sclerosis, and control patients. We observed substantial immune activation in the central nervous system with pronounced neuropathology (astrocytosis, axonal damage, and blood-brain-barrier leakage) and detected viral antigen in ACE2-receptor-positive cells enriched in the vascular compartment. Microglial nodules and the perivascular compartment represented COVID-19-specific, microanatomic-immune niches with context-specific cellular interactions enriched for activated CD8+ T cells. Altered brain T-cell-microglial interactions were linked to clinical measures of systemic inflammation and disturbed hemostasis. This study identifies profound neuroinflammation with activation of innate and adaptive immune cells as correlates of COVID-19 neuropathology, with implications for potential therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
Brain/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Microglia/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/immunology , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Blood-Brain Barrier/pathology , Brain/metabolism , Brain/pathology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Communication , Central Nervous System/immunology , Central Nervous System/metabolism , Central Nervous System/pathology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Proteins/metabolism , Inflammation , Lymphocyte Activation , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/pathology , Olfactory Bulb/immunology , Olfactory Bulb/metabolism , Olfactory Bulb/pathology , Respiratory Insufficiency/immunology , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/metabolism
12.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(11): 919-929, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813939

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prominent clinical symptoms of COVID-19 include CNS manifestations. However, it is unclear whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of COVID-19, gains access to the CNS and whether it causes neuropathological changes. We investigated the brain tissue of patients who died from COVID-19 for glial responses, inflammatory changes, and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CNS. METHODS: In this post-mortem case series, we investigated the neuropathological features in the brains of patients who died between March 13 and April 24, 2020, in Hamburg, Germany. Inclusion criteria comprised a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and availability of adequate samples. We did a neuropathological workup including histological staining and immunohistochemical staining for activated astrocytes, activated microglia, and cytotoxic T lymphocytes in the olfactory bulb, basal ganglia, brainstem, and cerebellum. Additionally, we investigated the presence and localisation of SARS-CoV-2 by qRT-PCR and by immunohistochemistry in selected patients and brain regions. FINDINGS: 43 patients were included in our study. Patients died in hospitals, nursing homes, or at home, and were aged between 51 years and 94 years (median 76 years [IQR 70-86]). We detected fresh territorial ischaemic lesions in six (14%) patients. 37 (86%) patients had astrogliosis in all assessed regions. Activation of microglia and infiltration by cytotoxic T lymphocytes was most pronounced in the brainstem and cerebellum, and meningeal cytotoxic T lymphocyte infiltration was seen in 34 (79%) patients. SARS-CoV-2 could be detected in the brains of 21 (53%) of 40 examined patients, with SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins found in cranial nerves originating from the lower brainstem and in isolated cells of the brainstem. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CNS was not associated with the severity of neuropathological changes. INTERPRETATION: In general, neuropathological changes in patients with COVID-19 seem to be mild, with pronounced neuroinflammatory changes in the brainstem being the most common finding. There was no evidence for CNS damage directly caused by SARS-CoV-2. The generalisability of these findings needs to be validated in future studies as the number of cases and availability of clinical data were low and no age-matched and sex-matched controls were included. FUNDING: German Research Foundation, Federal State of Hamburg, EU (eRARE), German Center for Infection Research (DZIF).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autopsy/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neuropathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcriptome/genetics
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