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1.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(2): ofab626, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650181

ABSTRACT

Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection elicits varying degrees of protective immunity conferred by neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). In this study, we report the persistence of nAb responses over 12 months after infection despite their decreasing trend noticed from 6 months. Methods: The study included sera from 497 individuals who had been infected with SARS-CoV-2 between January and August 2020. Samples were collected at 6 and 12 months after onset. The titers of immunoglobulin (Ig)G to the viral nucleocapsid protein (NP) and receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein were measured by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. The nAb titer was determined using lentivirus-based pseudovirus or authentic virus. Results: Antibody titers of NP-IgG, RBD-IgG, and nAbs were higher in severe and moderate cases than in mild cases at 12 months after onset. Although the nAb levels were likely to confer adequate protection against wild-type viral infection, the neutralization activity to recently circulating variants in some of the mild cases (~30%) was undermined, implying the susceptibility to reinfection with the variants of concerns (VOCs). Conclusions: Coronavirus disease 2019 convalescent individuals have robust humoral immunity even at 12 months after infection albeit that the medical history and background of patients could affect the function and dynamics of antibody response to the VOCs.

2.
Intern Med ; 61(2): 159-165, 2022 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1622449

ABSTRACT

Objective To examine the continuation of antibody prevalence and background factors in antibody-positive subjects after asymptomatic infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods A study was carried out to investigate the SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG) prevalence. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (IgG) were measured and analyzed with immunochromatographic tests. Patients Among 1,603 subjects, comprising patients, physicians, and nurses at 65 medical institutes in Kanagawa, Japan, 39 antibody-positive subjects received follow-up for 6 months. Results Of the 33 subjects who consented to the follow-up (23 patients and 10 medical professionals), continued positivity of IgG antibodies was confirmed in 11 of 32 cases (34.4%) after 2 months, 8 of 33 (24.2%) after 4 months, and 8 of 33 (24.2%) after 6 months. A significant difference was found in the sleeping time, drinking habits, hypertension, and use of angiotensin-receptor blockers on comparing subject background characteristics among three groups: patients with antibody production that continued for six months after the first detection of positivity, patients in whom antibody production stopped at four months, and patients in whom antibody production stopped at two months. Conclusion The continuation rate of IgG antibody prevalence was 24.2% at 6 months after the first detection of antibody positivity in cases with asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. This percentage is low compared with the antibody continuation rate in patients who have recovered from symptomatic COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulin M , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 661187, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241181

ABSTRACT

Objective: There is scarce evidence regarding the long-term persistence of neutralizing antibodies among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) survivors. This study determined neutralizing antibody titers (NT50) and antibodies against spike protein (SP) or nucleocapsid protein (NP) antigens approximately 6 months after the diagnosis of COVID-19. Methods: COVID-19 survivors in Japan were recruited. Serum samples and data related to patients' characteristics and COVID-19 history were collected. NT50 and titers of antibodies against NP and SP antigens were measured at 20-32 weeks after the first positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results. Factors associated with NT50 were identified using the multivariable linear regression and the correlations among NT50 and titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and total immunoglobulins (Igs) against NP and SP were assessed by Spearman's correlation. Results: Among 376 participants (median [range] days after testing positive for SARS-CoV-2, 180 (147-224); median [range] years of age, 50 (20-78); 188 [50%] male), most tested positive for NT50 (n = 367, 98%), SP-IgG (n = 344, 91%), SP-total Ig (n = 369, 98%), NP-IgG (n = 314, 84%), and NP-total Ig (n = 365, 97%). Regression analysis indicated that higher BMI, fever, and the requirement of mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation were significantly associated with higher NT50. Anti-SP antibodies correlated moderately with NT50 (Spearman's correlation: 0.63 for SP IgG; 0.57 for SP-total Ig), while the correlation was weak for anti-NP antibodies (0.37 for NP IgG; 0.32 for NP-total Ig). Conclusions: Most COVID-19 survivors had sustained neutralizing antibodies and tested positive for SP-total Ig and NP-total Ig approximately 6 months after infection.

4.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(12): 1294-1300, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744123

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We investigated relationships between subclinical COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) and background factors. METHODS: We determined SARS-CoV-2 antibody (IgG) prevalence in 1603 patients, doctors, and nurses in 65 medical institutions in Kanagawa Prefecture, Japan and investigated their background factors. Antibodies (IgG) against SARS-CoV-2 were analyzed by Immunochromatographic test. RESULTS: The 39 subjects (2.4%) were found to be IgG antibody-positive: 29 in the patient group (2.9%), 10 in the doctor/nurse group (2.0%), and 0 in the control group. After adjustment for age, sex, and the antibody prevalence in the control group, antibody prevalence was 2.7% in the patient group and 2.1% in the doctor/nurse group. There was no significant difference between the antibody-positive subjects and the antibody-negative subjects in any background factors investigated including overseas travel, contact with overseas travelers, presence/absence of infected individuals in the living area, use of trains 5 times a week or more, BCG vaccination, and use of ACE inhibitor and ARB. CONCLUSIONS: Antibody prevalence in the present survey at medical institution is higher than that in Tokyo and in Osaka measured by the government suggesting that subclinical infections are occurring more frequently than expected. No background factor that influenced antibody-positive status due to subclinical infection was identified.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Chromatography, Affinity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/isolation & purification , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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