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1.
J Sleep Res ; 2022 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807201

ABSTRACT

There has been increasing concern about the long-term impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as evidenced by anecdotal case reports of acute-onset parkinsonism and the polysomnographic feature of increased rapid eye movement sleep electromyographic activity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and correlates of dream-enactment behaviours, a hallmark of rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, which is a prodrome of α-synucleinopathy. This online survey was conducted between May and August 2020 in 15 countries/regions targeting adult participants (aged ≥18 years) from the general population with a harmonised structured questionnaire on sleep patterns and disorders, COVID-19 diagnosis and symptoms. We assessed dream-enactment behaviours using the Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behaviour Disorder Single-Question Screen with an additional question on their frequency. Among 26,539 respondents, 21,870 (82.2%) answered all items that were analysed in this study (mean [SD] age 41.6 [15.8] years; female sex 65.5%). The weighted prevalence of lifetime and weekly dream-enactment behaviours was 19.4% and 3.1% and were found to be 1.8- and 2.9-times higher in COVID-19-positive cases, respectively. Both lifetime and weekly dream-enactment behaviours were associated with young age, male sex, smoking, alcohol consumption, higher physical activity level, nightmares, COVID-19 diagnosis, olfactory impairment, obstructive sleep apnea symptoms, mood, and post-traumatic stress disorder features. Among COVID-19-positive cases, weekly dream-enactment behaviours were positively associated with the severity of COVID-19. Dream-enactment behaviours are common among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic and further increase among patients with COVID-19. Further studies are needed to investigate the potential neurodegenerative effect of COVID-19.

2.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 14: 93-108, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1701377

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A growing number of studies have demonstrated that the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has severely affected sleep and dream activity in healthy people. To date, no investigation has examined dream activity specifically in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: As part of the International COVID-19 Sleep Study (ICOSS), we compared 544 COVID-19 participants with 544 matched-controls. A within-subjects comparison between pre-pandemic and pandemic periods computed separately for controls and COVID-19 participants were performed on dream recall and nightmare frequency (DRF; NF). Also, non-parametric comparisons between controls and COVID-19 participants were carried out. Further, we compared psychological measures between the groups collected during pandemic. Ordinal logistic regression to detect the best predictors of NF was performed. RESULTS: We found that people reported greater dream activity during the pandemic. Comparisons between controls and COVID-19 participants revealed a) no difference between groups concerning DRF in the pre-pandemic period and during the pandemic; b) no difference between groups concerning nightmare frequency in the pre-pandemic period; and c) COVID-19 participants reported significantly higher NF than controls during pandemic (p = 0.003). Additionally, we showed that a) anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress-disorder (PTSD) symptom scores were higher in COVID-19 participants than controls; and b) quality of life and health as well as wellbeing (WHO-5) scores were significantly higher in controls than COVID-19 participants. Finally, ordinal logistic regression indicates that DRF (p < 0.001), PTSD (p < 0.001), anxiety (p = 0.018), insomnia (p = 0.039), COVID-19 severity (p = 0.014), sleep duration (p = 0.003) and age (p = 0.001) predicted NF. DISCUSSION: Our work shows strong associations between increased nightmares in those reporting having had COVID-19. This suggests that the more that people were affected by COVID-19, the greater the impact upon dream activity and quality of life.

3.
BMJ Open ; 11(12): e050672, 2021 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571201

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Sleep is important for human health and well-being. No previous study has assessed whether the COVID-19 pandemic impacts sleep and daytime function across the globe. METHODS: This large-scale international survey used a harmonised questionnaire. Fourteen countries participated during the period of May-August 2020. Sleep and daytime problems (poor sleep quality, sleep onset and maintenance problems, nightmares, hypnotic use, fatigue and excessive sleepiness) occurring 'before' and 'during' the pandemic were investigated. In total, 25 484 people participated and 22 151 (86.9%) responded to the key parameters and were included. Effects of COVID-19, confinement and financial suffering were considered. In the fully adjusted logistic regression models, results (weighted and stratified by country) were adjusted for gender, age, marital status, educational level, ethnicity, presence of sleep problems before COVID-19 and severity of the COVID-19 pandemic in each country at the time of the survey. RESULTS: The responders were mostly women (64%) with a mean age 41.8 (SD 15.9) years (median 39, range 18-95). Altogether, 3.0% reported having had COVID-19; 42.2% reported having been in confinement; and 55.9% had suffered financially. All sleep and daytime problems worsened during the pandemic by about 10% or more. Also, some participants reported improvements in sleep and daytime function. For example, sleep quality worsened in about 20% of subjects and improved in about 5%. COVID-19 was particularly associated with poor sleep quality, early morning awakening and daytime sleepiness. Confinement was associated with poor sleep quality, problems falling asleep and decreased use of hypnotics. Financial suffering was associated with all sleep and daytime problems, including nightmares and fatigue, even in the fully adjusted logistic regression models. CONCLUSIONS: Sleep problems, fatigue and excessive sleepiness increased significantly worldwide during the first phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Problems were associated with confinement and especially with financial suffering.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Female , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
4.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1711-1722, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477668

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Lifestyle and work habits have been drastically altered by restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Whether the associated changes in sleep timing modulate the risk of suffering from symptoms of insomnia, the most prevalent sleep disorder, is however incompletely understood. Here, we evaluate the association between the early pandemic-associated change in 1) the magnitude of social jetlag (SJL) - ie, the difference between sleep timing on working vs free days - and 2) symptoms of insomnia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 14,968 anonymous participants (mean age: 40 years; 64% females) responded to a standardized internet-based survey distributed across 14 countries. Using logistic multivariate regression, we examined the association between the degree of social jetlag and symptoms of insomnia, controlling for important confounders like social restriction extension, country specific COVID-19 severity and psychological distress, for example. RESULTS: In response to the pandemic, participants reported later sleep timing, especially during workdays. Most participants (46%) exhibited a reduction in their SJL, whereas 20% increased it; and 34% reported no change in SJL. Notably, we found that both increased and decreased SJL, as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, were associated with later sleep midpoint (indicating a later chronotype) as well as more recurrent and moderate-to-severe symptoms of insomnia (about 23-54% higher odds ratio than subjects with unchanged SJL). Primarily those with reduced SJL shifted their bedtimes to a later timepoint, compared with those without changes in SJL. CONCLUSION: Our findings offer important insights into how self-reported changes to the stability of sleep/wake timing, as reflected by changes in SJL, can be a critical marker of the risk of experiencing insomnia-related symptoms - even when individuals manage to reduce their social jetlag. These findings emphasize the clinical importance of analyzing sleep-wake regularity.

5.
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e053737, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476609

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: There are numerous reports on the psychological burden of medical workers after the COVID-19 outbreak; however, no study has examined the influence of developmental characteristics on the mental health of medical workers. The objective of this study was to examine whether the developmental characteristics of medical workers are associated with anxiety and depression after the COVID-19 outbreak. DESIGN: We conducted an online cross-sectional questionnaire survey in October 2020. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The data of 640 medical workers were analysed. The questionnaire included items on sociodemographic data, changes in their life after the COVID-19 outbreak and symptoms of depression, anxiety, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) traits and autism spectrum disorder traits. MAIN OUTCOMES: Depression symptoms were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and anxiety symptoms were assessed by the Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7. A series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed to test the effects of developmental characteristics on depression and anxiety symptoms after controlling for sociodemographic factors and changes in participants' lives after the COVID-19 outbreak. RESULTS: Increases in physical and psychological burden were observed in 49.1% and 78.3% of the subjects, respectively. The results of a multiple regression analysis showed that ADHD traits were significantly associated with both depression (ß=0.390, p<0.001) and anxiety (ß=0.426, p<0.001). Autistic traits were significantly associated with depression (ß=0.069, p<0.05) but not anxiety. Increased physical and psychological burden, being female, medical workers other than physicians and nurses, fear of COVID-19 and experience of discrimination were also significantly associated with both depression and anxiety. CONCLUSION: Globally, the burden on medical workers increased. This study suggested that medical workers with higher ADHD traits may need special attention during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity , Autism Spectrum Disorder , COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Internet , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 13: 1573-1591, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443911

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Many have reported odd dreams during the pandemic. Given that dreams are associated with mental health, understanding these changes could provide crucial information about wellbeing during the pandemic. This study explored associations between COVID-19 and dream recall frequency (DRF), and related social, health, and mental health factors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional web survey of 19,355 individuals in 14 countries from May to July 2020. We collected data on COVID-19, mental health, sleep and DRF during the pandemic. We performed McNemar Tests to compare low (<3 nights per week) and high DRF (≥3 nights per week) before and during COVID-19 and to evaluate changes in sleep variables segmented by DRF. Chi-square tests were conducted to compare characteristics between low and high DRF. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine associations between various independent variables and DRF. RESULTS: Reports of high DRF during the pandemic were higher than before the pandemic (P<0.001). Female gender (aOR=1.25, 95% CI 1.10-1.41), nightmares (aOR=4.22, 95% CI 3.45-5.17), sleep talking (aOR= 2.36, 1.73-3.23), sleep maintenance problems (aOR=1.34, 95% CI 1.15-1.56), symptoms of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD; aOR=1.24, 95% CI 1.09-1.41) and repeated disturbing thoughts (posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) were associated with high DRF. Age group 55-64 years (aOR=0.69, 95% CI 0.58-0.83) reported less high DRF than younger participants. Unadjusted OR showed associations between depression, anxiety, and DRF; however, in adjusted regression depression (aOR= 0.71, 0.59-0.86) and anxiety (aOR=0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94) were negatively associated with high DRF. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: DRF was higher than pre-pandemic levels across four continents. DRF was associated with gender and parasomnias like nightmares and RBD symptoms, sleep maintenance problems, PTSD symptoms and negatively associated with depression and anxiety. The results implicate that COVID-19 is reflected in our dreams as an expression of the emotional intensity of the pandemic.

7.
Sleep ; 45(2)2022 02 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1371748

ABSTRACT

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Individual circadian type is a ubiquitous trait defining sleep, with eveningness often associated with poorer sleep and mental health than morningness. However, it is unknown whether COVID-19 pandemic has differentially affected sleep and mental health depending on the circadian type. Here, the differences in sleep and mental health between circadian types are examined globally before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The sample collected between May and August 2020 across 12 countries/regions consisted of 19 267 adults with information on their circadian type. Statistical analyses were performed by using Complex Sample procedures, stratified by country and weighted by the number of inhabitants in the country/area of interest and by the relative number of responders in that country/area. RESULTS: Evening-types had poorer mental health, well-being, and quality of life or health than other circadian types during the pandemic. Sleep-wake schedules were delayed especially on working days, and evening-types reported an increase in sleep duration. Sleep problems increased in all circadian types, but especially among evening-types, moderated by financial suffering and confinement. Intermediate-types were less vulnerable to sleep changes, although morningness protected from most sleep problems. These findings were confirmed after adjusting for age, sex, duration of the confinement, or socio-economic status during the pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate an alarming increase in sleep and mental health problems, especially among evening-types as compared to other circadian types during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , Circadian Rhythm , Humans , Mental Health , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Sleep Breath ; 25(2): 849-860, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204925

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may increase the risk of severe COVID-19; however, the level of potential modulation has not yet been established. The objective of the study was to determine the association between high risk of OSA, comorbidities, and increased risk for COVID-19, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional population-based web survey in adults in 14 countries/regions. The survey included sociodemographic variables and comorbidities. Participants were asked questions about COVID-19, hospitalization, and ICU treatment. Standardized questionnaire (STOP questionnaire for high risk of OSA) was included. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted adjusting for various factors. RESULTS: Out of 26,539 respondents, 20,598 (35.4% male) completed the survey. Mean age and BMI of participants were 41.5 ± 16.0 years and 24.0 ± 5.0 kg/m2, respectively. The prevalence of physician-diagnosed OSA was 4.1% and high risk of OSA was 9.5%. We found that high risk of OSA (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20, 2.47) and diabetes (aOR 2.07, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.48) were associated with reporting of a COVID-19 diagnosis. High risk for OSA (aOR 2.11, 95% CI: 1.10-4.01), being male (aOR: 2.82, 95% CI: 1.55-5.12), having diabetes (aOR: 3.93, 95% CI: 1.70-9.12), and having depression (aOR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.15-4.77) were associated with increased risk of hospitalization or ICU treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Participants at high risk of OSA had increased odds of having COVID-19 and were two times more likely to be hospitalized or treated in ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Status , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/diagnosis , Snoring/epidemiology
9.
J Orthop Sci ; 27(1): 207-210, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic caused the Japanese government to declare a State of Emergency on April 7, 2020. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the effects of the pandemic on surgical cases at a university hospital trauma center. METHODS: An observational study was performed at a trauma center in a tertiary hospital in Tokyo, Japan. The number of surgeries was compared between two periods: a historical control period (Tuesday April 9 to Monday May 27, 2019) and the period of the Japan State of Emergency due to COVID-19 (Tuesday April 7-Monday May 25, 2020). Information on patient age, gender, and surgical diagnosis, site, and procedure was collected for cases operated on in each period. The number of trauma surgeries was compared between the two periods. Data from the two periods were compared statistically. RESULTS: The total number of surgical cases was 151 in the control period and 83 in the COVID-19 period (including no cases with COVID-19), a decrease of 45.0%. There were significantly more surgeries for patients with hip fractures in the COVID-19 period (9 vs. 19, P < 0.001 by Fisher exact test). CONCLUSIONS: During the State of Emergency in Japan, the number of operations for trauma patients at the trauma center decreased, but surgeries for hip fracture increased.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hip Fractures , Hip Fractures/epidemiology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Trauma Centers
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