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Thromb J ; 19(1): 55, 2021 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1357033


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure is associated with high mortality. The pathogenesis of COVID-19 is associated with microembolism or microvascular endothelial injuries. Here, we report that syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a component of the endothelial glycocalyx, may be a biomarker of severity classification for COVID-19 related to endothelial injury. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We analyzed the data of COVID-19 patients for 1 year from February 2020 at Yokohama City University Hospital and Yokohama City University Medical Center Hospital. We selected COVID-19 patients who required admission care, including intensive care, and analyzed the classification of severe and critical COVID-19 retrospectively, using various clinical data and laboratory data with SDC-1 by ELISA. RESULTS: We analyzed clinical and laboratory data with SDC-1 in five severe COVID-19 and ten critical COVID-19 patients. In the two groups, their backgrounds were almost the same. In laboratory data, the LDH, CHE, and CRP levels showed significant differences in each group (P = 0.032, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.007, respectively) with no significant differences in coagulation-related factors (platelet, PT-INR, d-dimer, ISTH score; P = 0.200, 0.277, 0.655, and 0.36, respectively). For the clinical data, the SOFA score was significantly different from admission day to day 14 of admission (p < 0.0001). The SDC-1 levels of critical COVID-19 patients were significantly higher on admission day and all-time course compared with the levels of severe COVID-19 patients (P = 0.009 and P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Temporal change of SDC-1 levels closely reflect the severity of COVID-19, therefore, SDC-1 may be a therapeutic target and a biomarker for the severity classification of Covid-19.

PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256022, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352710


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic rapidly increases the use of mechanical ventilation (MV). Such cases further require extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) and have a high mortality. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to identify prognostic biomarkers pathophysiologically reflecting future deterioration of COVID-19. METHODS: Clinical, laboratory, and outcome data were collected from 102 patients with moderate to severe COVID-19. Interleukin (IL)-6 level and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA copy number in plasma were assessed with ELISA kit and quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Twelve patients died or required ECMO owing to acute respiratory distress syndrome despite the use of MV. Among various variables, a ratio of oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2), IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA on admission before intubation were strongly predictive of fatal outcomes after the MV use. Moreover, among these variables, combining SpO2/FiO2, IL-6, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA showed the highest accuracy (area under the curve: 0.934). In patients with low SpO2/FiO2 (< 261), fatal event-rate after the MV use at the 30-day was significantly higher in patients with high IL-6 (> 49 pg/mL) and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia (> 1.5 copies/µL) compared to those with high IL-6 or RNAaemia or without high IL-6 and RNAaemia (88% vs. 22% or 8%, log-rank test P = 0.0097 or P < 0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Combining SpO2/FiO2 with high IL-6 and SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia which reflect hyperinflammation and viral overload allows accurately and before intubation identifying COVID-19 patients at high risk for ECMO use or in-hospital death despite the use of MV.

COVID-19/mortality , Interleukin-6/blood , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Consumption , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Viral Load
Thromb J ; 19(1): 26, 2021 Apr 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195921


BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pneumonitis associated with severe respiratory failure has a high mortality rate. Based on recent reports, the most severely ill patients present with coagulopathy, and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)-like massive intravascular clot formation is frequently observed. Coagulopathy has emerged as a significant contributor to thrombotic complications. Although recommendations have been made for anticoagulant use for COVID-19, no guidelines have been specified. We describe four cases of critical COVID-19 with thrombosis detected by enhanced CT scan. The CT findings of all cases demonstrated typical findings of COVID-19 and pulmonary embolism or deep venous thrombus without critical exacerbation. Two patients died of respiratory failure due to COVID-19. DISCUSSION: Previous reports have suggested coagulopathy with thrombotic signs as the main pathological feature of COVID-19, but no previous reports have focused on coagulopathy evaluated by whole-body enhanced CT scan. Changes in hemostatic biomarkers, represented by an increase in D-dimer and fibrin/fibrinogen degradation products, indicated that the essence of coagulopathy was massive fibrin formation. Although there were no clinical symptoms related to their prognosis, critical COVID-19-induced systemic thrombus formation was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic dose anticoagulants should be considered for critical COVID-19 because of induced coagulopathy, and aggressive follow-up by whole body enhanced CT scan for systemic venous thromboembolism (VTE) is necessary.