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Biostatistics and Epidemiology ; 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1882954


As people move around using public transportation networks, such as train and airplanes, it is expected that emerging infectious diseases will spread on the network. The scan statistics approach has been frequently applied to identify high-risk locations, and the results are widely used for making a clinical decisions in a timely manner. However, they are not optimally designed for modeling the spread and might not effectively work under the emergency situation where computational time is essentially important. We propose a new scan statistics approach for the public transportation network, called PTNS (Public Transportation Network Scan). PTNS utilizes the available network structure to construct potential candidates of clusters, and thus it can work well especially in situations where public transportation is the main medium of the infection spread. Further, it is designed for rapid surveillance. Lastly, PTNS is generalized to detect space-time clusters by customizing the iteration for potential clusters creation. Using the simulation data generated with a real railway network, we showed that, PTNS outperformed the conventional methods, including Circular- and Flex-scan approaches in terms of the detection performance, while the computational time is feasible.

Journal of Nuclear Medicine ; 62(SUPPL 1), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1312189


Introduction: COVID-19 has now spread around the world. Its effects go far beyond healthcare. For example, education must currently be carried out in a way that is consistent with infection prevention for students and faculty members. This has led to changes in the provision of education at educational institutions in Japan, including in nuclear medicine examination. We wanted to see what changes had been made in the educational methods at different educational institutions, to ensure the ongoing quality of training for radiological technicians. We conducted a survey on educational methods and new initiatives used in nuclear medicine examination classes at Japanese educational institutions since the start of the pandemic. Methods: We sent the questionnaire to 19 Japanese educational institutions. It included a survey of the class format and new initiatives in nuclear medicine examination classes in 2020. We also investigated the training format and new initiatives in hands-on training in 2020. Results: The format of nuclear medicine examination lectures varied by educational institution, but included remote lectures, video on demand, and hybrid lectures (combined remote and face-to-face lectures). To enhance the effect of these new educational formats, schools had tried different options including strengthening the ability to ask questions, strengthening the confirmation test, improving task management, and introducing an e-learning system. Some institutions had continued traditional face-to-face lectures with stronger infection control measures. For hands-on training, most educational institutions used traditional face-to-face methods, with strengthened infection control measures. Some had reduced the time spent on campus for training and allowed students to watch videos covering the content of hands-on training. Some provided practical training in a hybrid format. Conclusions: Educational institutions had introduced various educational methods and new initiatives. They all prioritized students' understanding of lectures and tried to use what they considered to be the best educational methods. Sharing information about the changes in different educational institutions should enable them all to continue to develop good radiological technologists even during a pandemic. Acknowledgements: We thank teachers in charge of nuclear medicine examination classes at each educational institution who responded to the questionnaire. We also thank Melissa Leffler, MBA, from Edanz Group ( for editing a draft of this manuscript.

Public Health ; 187: 157-160, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733655


OBJECTIVES: The Japanese prime minister declared a state of emergency on April 7 2020 to combat the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). This declaration was unique in the sense that it was essentially driven by the voluntary restraint of the residents. We examined the change of the infection route by investigating contact experiences with COVID-19-positive cases. STUDY DESIGN: This study is a population-level questionnaire-based study using a social networking service (SNS). METHODS: To assess the impact of the declaration, this study used population-level questionnaire data collected from an SNS with 121,375 respondents (between March 27 and May 5) to assess the change in transmission routes over the study period, which was measured by investigating the association between COVID-19-related symptoms and (self-reported) contact with COVID-19-infected individuals. RESULTS: The results of this study show that the declaration prevented infections in the workplace, but increased domestic infections as people stayed at home. However, after April 24, workplace infections started to increase again, driven by the increase in community-acquired infections. CONCLUSIONS: While careful interpretation is necessary because our data are self-reported from voluntary SNS users, these findings indicate the impact of the declaration on the change in transmission routes of COVID-19 over time in Japan.

Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Health/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Self Report , Social Networking , Surveys and Questionnaires , Symptom Assessment , Young Adult