Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 35
Filter
1.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 234, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242141

ABSTRACT

Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is associated with vascular endothelial injury and permeability in the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. Elevated circulating Ang-2 levels may identify critically ill patients with distinct pathobiology amenable to targeted therapy. We hypothesized that plasma Ang-2 measured shortly after hospitalization among patients with sepsis would be associated with the development of ARDS and poor clinical outcomes. To test this hypothesis, we measured plasma Ang-2 in a cohort of 757 patients with sepsis, including 267 with ARDS, enrolled in the emergency department or early in their ICU course before the COVID-19 pandemic. Multivariable models were used to test the association of Ang-2 with the development of ARDS and 30-day morality. We found that early plasma Ang-2 in sepsis was associated with higher baseline severity of illness, the development of ARDS, and mortality risk. The association between Ang-2 and mortality was strongest among patients with ARDS and sepsis as compared to those with sepsis alone (OR 1.81 vs. 1.52 per log Ang-2 increase). These findings might inform models testing patient risk prediction and strengthen the evidence for Ang-2 as an appealing biomarker for patient selection for novel therapeutic agents to target vascular injury in sepsis and ARDS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Humans , Prognosis , Angiopoietin-2 , Critical Illness , Pandemics
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1130821, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299747

ABSTRACT

Introduction: There remains a need to better identify patients at highest risk for developing severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) as additional waves of the pandemic continue to impact hospital systems. We sought to characterize the association of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid viral antigen, and a panel of thromboinflammatory biomarkers with development of severe disease in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptomatic COVID-19. Methods: Blood samples were collected on arrival from 77 patients with symptomatic COVID-19, and plasma levels of thromboinflammatory biomarkers were measured. Results: Differences in biomarkers between those who did and did not develop severe disease or death 7 days after presentation were analyzed. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, RAGE, SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid viral antigen, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-1 were significantly elevated in the group who developed severe disease (all p<0.05). In a multivariable regression model, RAGE and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid viral antigen remained significant risk factors for development of severe disease (both p<0.05), and each had sensitivity and specificity >80% on cut-point analysis. Discussion: Elevated RAGE and SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid viral antigen on emergency department presentation are strongly associated with development of severe disease at 7 days. These findings are of clinical relevance for patient prognostication and triage as hospital systems continue to be overwhelmed. Further studies are warranted to determine the feasibility and utility of point-of care measurements of these biomarkers in the emergency department setting to improve patient prognostication and triage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products , Nucleocapsid , Antigens , Biomarkers , Antigens, Viral
3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1130288, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2259138

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Thromboinflammatory complications are well described sequalae of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and there is evidence of both hyperreactive platelet and inflammatory neutrophil biology that contributes to the thromoinflammatory milieu. It has been demonstrated in other thromboinflammatory diseases that the circulating environment may affect cellular behavior, but what role this environment exerts on platelets and neutrophils in COVID-19 remains unknown. We tested the hypotheses that 1) plasma from COVID-19 patients can induce a prothrombotic platelet functional phenotype, and 2) contents released from platelets (platelet releasate) from COVID-19 patients can induce a proinflammatory neutrophil phenotype. Methods: We treated platelets with COVID-19 patient and disease control plasma, and measured their aggregation response to collagen and adhesion in a microfluidic parallel plate flow chamber coated with collagen and thromboplastin. We exposed healthy neutrophils to platelet releasate from COVID-19 patients and disease controls and measured neutrophil extracellular trap formation and performed RNA sequencing. Results: We found that COVID-19 patient plasma promoted auto-aggregation, thereby reducing response to further stimulation ex-vivo. Neither disease condition increased the number of platelets adhered to a collagen and thromboplastin coated parallel plate flow chamber, but both markedly reduced platelet size. COVID-19 patient platelet releasate increased myeloperoxidasedeoxyribonucleic acid complexes and induced changes to neutrophil gene expression. Discussion: Together these results suggest aspects of the soluble environment circulating platelets, and that the contents released from those neutrophil behavior independent of direct cellular contact.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets , COVID-19 , Humans , Blood Platelets/metabolism , Neutrophils/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Thromboplastin/metabolism , Collagen/metabolism
4.
5.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 2022 Oct 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2232877
6.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 21019, 2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151106

ABSTRACT

Spatial resolution in existing chest x-ray (CXR)-based scoring systems for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia is low, and should be increased for better representation of anatomy, and severity of lung involvement. An existing CXR-based system, the Brixia score, was modified to increase the spatial resolution, creating the MBrixia score. The MBrixia score is the sum, of a rule-based quantification of CXR severity on a scale of 0 to 3 in 12 anatomical zones in the lungs. The MBrixia score was applied to CXR images from COVID-19 patients at a single tertiary hospital in the period May 4th-June 5th, 2020. The relationship between MBrixia score, and level of respiratory support at the time of performed CXR imaging was investigated. 37 hospitalized COVID-19 patients with 290 CXRs were identified, 22 (59.5%) were admitted to the intensive care unit and 10 (27%) died during follow-up. In a Poisson regression using all 290 MBrixia scored CXRs, a higher MBrixia score was associated with a higher level of respiratory support at the time of performed CXR. The MBrixia score could potentially be valuable as a quantitative surrogate measurement of COVID-19 pneumonia severity, and future studies should investigate the score's validity and capabilities of predicting clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , SARS-CoV-2 , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , X-Rays , Retrospective Studies
7.
Crit Care Med ; 51(1): 153-156, 2023 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161201

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans
8.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(9): 1179-1180, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114561
9.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(10): 1401-1410, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080840

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Levels of plasma SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (N) antigen may be an important biomarker in patients with COVID-19 and enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether levels of plasma antigen can predict short-term clinical outcomes and identify clinical and viral factors associated with plasma antigen levels in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of baseline plasma antigen level from 2540 participants enrolled in the TICO (Therapeutics for Inpatients With COVID-19) platform trial from August 2020 to November 2021, with additional data on day 5 outcome and time to discharge. SETTING: 114 centers in 10 countries. PARTICIPANTS: Adults hospitalized for acute SARS-CoV-2 infection with 12 days or less of symptoms. MEASUREMENTS: Baseline plasma viral N antigen level was measured at a central laboratory. Delta variant status was determined from baseline nasal swabs using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Associations between baseline patient characteristics and viral factors and baseline plasma antigen levels were assessed using both unadjusted and multivariable modeling. Association between elevated baseline antigen level of 1000 ng/L or greater and outcomes, including worsening of ordinal pulmonary scale at day 5 and time to hospital discharge, were evaluated using logistic regression and Fine-Gray regression models, respectively. RESULTS: Plasma antigen was below the level of quantification in 5% of participants at enrollment, and 1000 ng/L or greater in 57%. Baseline pulmonary severity of illness was strongly associated with plasma antigen level, with mean plasma antigen level 3.10-fold higher among those requiring noninvasive ventilation or high-flow nasal cannula compared with room air (95% CI, 2.22 to 4.34). Plasma antigen level was higher in those who lacked antispike antibodies (6.42 fold; CI, 5.37 to 7.66) and in those with the Delta variant (1.73 fold; CI, 1.41 to 2.13). Additional factors associated with higher baseline antigen level included male sex, shorter time since hospital admission, decreased days of remdesivir, and renal impairment. In contrast, race, ethnicity, body mass index, and immunocompromising conditions were not associated with plasma antigen levels. Plasma antigen level of 1000 ng/L or greater was associated with a markedly higher odds of worsened pulmonary status at day 5 (odds ratio, 5.06 [CI, 3.41 to 7.50]) and longer time to hospital discharge (median, 7 vs. 4 days; subhazard ratio, 0.51 [CI, 0.45 to 0.57]), with subhazard ratios similar across all levels of baseline pulmonary severity. LIMITATIONS: Plasma samples were drawn at enrollment, not hospital presentation. No point-of-care test to measure plasma antigen is currently available. CONCLUSION: Elevated plasma antigen is highly associated with both severity of pulmonary illness and clinically important patient outcomes. Multiple clinical and viral factors are associated with plasma antigen level at presentation. These data support a potential role of ongoing viral replication in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 in hospitalized patients. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: U.S. government Operation Warp Speed and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Male , Nucleocapsid , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 278, 2022 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Studies quantifying SARS-CoV-2 have focused on upper respiratory tract or plasma viral RNA with inconsistent association with clinical outcomes. The association between plasma viral antigen levels and clinical outcomes has not been previously studied. Our aim was to investigate the relationship between plasma SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen (N-antigen) concentration and both markers of host response and clinical outcomes. METHODS: SARS-CoV-2 N-antigen concentrations were measured in the first study plasma sample (D0), collected within 72 h of hospital admission, from 256 subjects admitted between March 2020 and August 2021 in a prospective observational cohort of hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The rank correlations between plasma N-antigen and plasma biomarkers of tissue damage, coagulation, and inflammation were assessed. Multiple ordinal regression was used to test the association between enrollment N-antigen plasma concentration and the primary outcome of clinical deterioration at one week as measured by a modified World Health Organization (WHO) ordinal scale. Multiple logistic regression was used to test the association between enrollment plasma N-antigen concentration and the secondary outcomes of ICU admission, mechanical ventilation at 28 days, and death at 28 days. The prognostic discrimination of an externally derived "high antigen" cutoff of N-antigen ≥ 1000 pg/mL was also tested. RESULTS: N-antigen on D0 was detectable in 84% of study participants. Plasma N-antigen levels significantly correlated with RAGE (r = 0.61), IL-10 (r = 0.59), and IP-10 (r = 0.59, adjusted p = 0.01 for all correlations). For the primary outcome of clinical status at one week, each 500 pg/mL increase in plasma N-antigen level was associated with an adjusted OR of 1.05 (95% CI 1.03-1.08) for worse WHO ordinal status. D0 plasma N-antigen ≥ 1000 pg/mL was 77% sensitive and 59% specific (AUROC 0.68) with a positive predictive value of 23% and a negative predictive value of 93% for a worse WHO ordinal scale at day 7 compared to baseline. D0 N-antigen concentration was independently associated with ICU admission and 28-day mechanical ventilation, but not with death at 28 days. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma N-antigen levels are readily measured and provide important insight into the pathogenesis and prognosis of COVID-19. The measurement of N-antigen levels early in-hospital course may improve risk stratification, especially for identifying patients who are unlikely to progress to severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Nucleocapsid , RNA, Viral
11.
Crit Care Clin ; 37(4): 717-732, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1414515

ABSTRACT

The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care unit. Improving outcomes depends on not only evidence-based care once ARDS has already developed but also preventing ARDS incidence. Several environmental exposures have now been shown to increase the risk of ARDS and related adverse outcomes. How environmental factors impact the risk of developing ARDS is a growing and important field of research that should inform the care of individual patients as well as public health policy.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy
12.
Anaesth Crit Care Pain Med ; 41(5): 101121, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914093

ABSTRACT

While the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic placed a heavy burden on healthcare systems worldwide, it also induced urgent mobilisation of research teams to develop treatments preventing or curing the disease and its consequences. It has, therefore, challenged critical care research to rapidly focus on specific fields while forcing critical care physicians to make difficult ethical decisions. This narrative review aims to summarise critical care research -from organisation to research fields- in this pandemic setting and to highlight opportunities to improve research efficiency in the future, based on what is learned from COVID-19. This pressure on research revealed, i.e., (i) the need to harmonise regulatory processes between countries, allowing simplified organisation of international research networks to improve their efficiency in answering large-scale questions; (ii) the importance of developing translational research from which therapeutic innovations can emerge; (iii) the need for improved triage and predictive scores to rationalise admission to the intensive care unit. In this context, key areas for future critical care research and better pandemic preparedness are artificial intelligence applied to healthcare, characterisation of long-term symptoms, and ethical considerations. Such collaborative research efforts should involve groups from both high and low-to-middle income countries to propose worldwide solutions. As a conclusion, stress tests on healthcare organisations should be viewed as opportunities to design new research frameworks and strategies. Worldwide availability of research networks ready to operate is essential to be prepared for next pandemics. Importantly, researchers and physicians should prioritise realistic and ethical goals for both clinical care and research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Artificial Intelligence , Critical Care , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(7): 700-714, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886186

ABSTRACT

Unique challenges arise when conducting trials to evaluate therapies already in common clinical use, including difficulty enrolling patients owing to widespread open-label use of trial therapies and the need for large sample sizes to detect small but clinically meaningful treatment effects. Despite numerous successes in trials evaluating novel interventions such as vaccines, traditional explanatory trials have struggled to provide definitive answers to time-sensitive questions for acutely ill patients with COVID-19. Pragmatic trials, which can increase efficiency by allowing some or all trial procedures to be embedded into clinical care, are increasingly proposed as a means to evaluate therapies that are in common clinical use. In this Personal View, we use two concurrently conducted COVID-19 trials of hydroxychloroquine (the US ORCHID trial and the UK RECOVERY trial) to contrast the effects of explanatory and pragmatic trial designs on trial conduct, trial results, and the care of patients managed outside of clinical trials. In view of the potential advantages and disadvantages of explanatory and pragmatic trial designs, we make recommendations for their optimal use in the evaluation of therapies in the acute care setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Research Design
14.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e060664, 2022 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879135

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic brought an urgent need to discover novel effective therapeutics for patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19. The Investigation of Serial studies to Predict Your Therapeutic Response with Imaging And moLecular Analysis (ISPY COVID-19 trial) was designed and implemented in early 2020 to evaluate investigational agents rapidly and simultaneously on a phase 2 adaptive platform. This manuscript outlines the design, rationale, implementation and challenges of the ISPY COVID-19 trial during the first phase of trial activity from April 2020 until December 2021. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The ISPY COVID-19 Trial is a multicentre open-label phase 2 platform trial in the USA designed to evaluate therapeutics that may have a large effect on improving outcomes from severe COVID-19. The ISPY COVID-19 Trial network includes academic and community hospitals with significant geographical diversity across the country. Enrolled patients are randomised to receive one of up to four investigational agents or a control and are evaluated for a family of two primary outcomes-time to recovery and mortality. The statistical design uses a Bayesian model with 'stopping' and 'graduation' criteria designed to efficiently discard ineffective therapies and graduate promising agents for definitive efficacy trials. Each investigational agent arm enrols to a maximum of 125 patients per arm and is compared with concurrent controls. As of December 2021, 11 investigational agent arms had been activated, and 8 arms were complete. Enrolment and adaptation of the trial design are ongoing. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: ISPY COVID-19 operates under a central institutional review board via Wake Forest School of Medicine IRB00066805. Data generated from this trial will be reported in peer-reviewed medical journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04488081.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Respiratory Insufficiency , Bayes Theorem , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
15.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 206(8): 961-972, 2022 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874929

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Autopsy and biomarker studies suggest that endotheliopathy contributes to coronavirus disease (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the effects of COVID-19 on the lung endothelium are not well defined. We hypothesized that the lung endotheliopathy of COVID-19 is caused by circulating host factors and direct endothelial infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Objectives: We aimed to determine the effects of SARS-CoV-2 or sera from patients with COVID-19 on the permeability and inflammatory activation of lung microvascular endothelial cells. Methods: Human lung microvascular endothelial cells were treated with live SARS-CoV-2; inactivated viral particles; or sera from patients with COVID-19, patients without COVID-19, and healthy volunteers. Permeability was determined by measuring transendothelial resistance to electrical current flow, where decreased resistance signifies increased permeability. Inflammatory mediators were quantified in culture supernatants. Endothelial biomarkers were quantified in patient sera. Measurements and Main Results: Viral PCR confirmed that SARS-CoV-2 enters and replicates in endothelial cells. Live SARS-CoV-2, but not dead virus or spike protein, induces endothelial permeability and secretion of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. There was substantial variability in the effects of SARS-CoV-2 on endothelial cells from different donors. Sera from patients with COVID-19 induced endothelial permeability, which correlated with disease severity. Serum levels of endothelial activation and injury biomarkers were increased in patients with COVID-19 and correlated with severity of illness. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 infects and dysregulates endothelial cell functions. Circulating factors in patients with COVID-19 also induce endothelial cell dysfunction. Our data point to roles for both systemic factors acting on lung endothelial cells and viral infection of endothelial cells in COVID-19-associated endotheliopathy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vascular Diseases , Biomarkers/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Lung , Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vascular Diseases/metabolism , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
16.
JCI Insight ; 7(9)2022 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868830

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe value of the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) as a biomarker in COVID-19 is not well understood. We tested the association between plasma sRAGE and illness severity, viral burden, and clinical outcomes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 who were not mechanically ventilated.MethodsBaseline sRAGE was measured among participants enrolled in the ACTIV-3/TICO trial of bamlanivimab for hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Spearman's rank correlation was used to assess the relationship between sRAGE and other plasma biomarkers, including viral nucleocapsid antigen. Fine-Gray models adjusted for baseline supplemental oxygen requirement, antigen level, positive endogenous anti-nucleocapsid antibody response, sex, age, BMI, diabetes mellitus, renal impairment, corticosteroid treatment, and log2-transformed IL-6 level were used to assess the association between baseline sRAGE and time to sustained recovery. Cox regression adjusted for the same factors was used to assess the association between sRAGE and mortality.ResultsAmong 277 participants, baseline sRAGE was strongly correlated with viral plasma antigen concentration (ρ = 0.57). There was a weaker correlation between sRAGE and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, such as IL-6 (ρ = 0.36) and CRP (ρ = 0.20). Participants with plasma sRAGE in the highest quartile had a significantly lower rate of sustained recovery (adjusted recovery rate ratio, 0.64 [95% CI, 0.43-0.90]) and a higher unadjusted risk of death (HR, 4.70 [95% CI, 2.01-10.99]) compared with participants in the lower quartiles.ConclusionElevated plasma sRAGE in hospitalized, nonventilated patients with COVID-19 was an indicator of both clinical illness severity and plasma viral load. Plasma sRAGE in the highest quartile was associated with a lower likelihood of sustained recovery and higher unadjusted risk of death. These findings, which we believe to be novel, indicate that plasma sRAGE may be a promising biomarker for COVID-19 prognostication and clinical trial enrichment.Trial RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT04501978.FundingNIH (5T32GM008440-24, 18X107CF6, HHSN261201500003I, R35HL140026, and OT2HL156812).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Biomarkers , Humans , Interleukin-6 , Prognosis , Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products
17.
Anesthesiology ; 136(5): 732-748, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764668

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite expanding use, knowledge on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support during the COVID-19 pandemic remains limited. The objective was to report characteristics, management, and outcomes of patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation with a diagnosis of COVID-19 in France and to identify pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation factors associated with in-hospital mortality. A hypothesis of similar mortality rates and risk factors for COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients on venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was made. METHODS: The Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Respiratory Failure and/or Heart failure related to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (ECMOSARS) registry included COVID-19 patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in France. This study analyzed patients included in this registry up to October 25, 2020, and supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for respiratory failure with a minimum follow-up of 28 days after cannulation. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Risk factors for in-hospital mortality were analyzed. RESULTS: Among 494 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patients included in the registry, 429 were initially supported by venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and followed for at least 28 days. The median (interquartile range) age was 54 yr (46 to 60 yr), and 338 of 429 (79%) were men. Management before extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation included prone positioning for 411 of 429 (96%), neuromuscular blockage for 419 of 427 (98%), and NO for 161 of 401 (40%). A total of 192 of 429 (45%) patients were cannulated by a mobile extracorporeal membrane oxygenation unit. In-hospital mortality was 219 of 429 (51%), with a median follow-up of 49 days (33 to 70 days). Among pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation modifiable exposure variables, neuromuscular blockage use (hazard ratio, 0.286; 95% CI, 0.101 to 0.81) and duration of ventilation (more than 7 days compared to less than 2 days; hazard ratio, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.83) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Both age (per 10-yr increase; hazard ratio, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.50) and total bilirubin at cannulation (6.0 mg/dl or more compared to less than 1.2 mg/dl; hazard ratio, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.09 to 6.5) were confounders significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality was higher than recently reported, but nearly half of the patients survived. A high proportion of patients were cannulated by a mobile extracorporeal membrane oxygenation unit. Several factors associated with mortality were identified. Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support should be considered early within the first week of mechanical ventilation initiation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Insufficiency , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies
18.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(2): 234-243, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753917

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial, bamlanivimab, a SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing monoclonal antibody, given in combination with remdesivir, did not improve outcomes among hospitalized patients with COVID-19 based on an early futility assessment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the a priori hypothesis that bamlanivimab has greater benefit in patients without detectable levels of endogenous neutralizing antibody (nAb) at study entry than in those with antibodies, especially if viral levels are high. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04501978). SETTING: Multicenter trial. PATIENTS: Hospitalized patients with COVID-19 without end-organ failure. INTERVENTION: Bamlanivimab (7000 mg) or placebo. MEASUREMENTS: Antibody, antigen, and viral RNA levels were centrally measured on stored specimens collected at baseline. Patients were followed for 90 days for sustained recovery (defined as discharge to home and remaining home for 14 consecutive days) and a composite safety outcome (death, serious adverse events, organ failure, or serious infections). RESULTS: Among 314 participants (163 receiving bamlanivimab and 151 placebo), the median time to sustained recovery was 19 days and did not differ between the bamlanivimab and placebo groups (subhazard ratio [sHR], 0.99 [95% CI, 0.79 to 1.22]; sHR > 1 favors bamlanivimab). At entry, 50% evidenced production of anti-spike nAbs; 50% had SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid plasma antigen levels of at least 1000 ng/L. Among those without and with nAbs at study entry, the sHRs were 1.24 (CI, 0.90 to 1.70) and 0.74 (CI, 0.54 to 1.00), respectively (nominal P for interaction = 0.018). The sHR (bamlanivimab vs. placebo) was also more than 1 for those with plasma antigen or nasal viral RNA levels above median level at entry and was greatest for those without antibodies and with elevated levels of antigen (sHR, 1.48 [CI, 0.99 to 2.23]) or viral RNA (sHR, 1.89 [CI, 1.23 to 2.91]). Hazard ratios for the composite safety outcome (<1 favors bamlanivimab) also differed by serostatus at entry: 0.67 (CI, 0.37 to 1.20) for those without and 1.79 (CI, 0.92 to 3.48) for those with nAbs. LIMITATION: Subgroup analysis of a trial prematurely stopped because of futility; small sample size; multiple subgroups analyzed. CONCLUSION: Efficacy and safety of bamlanivimab may differ depending on whether an endogenous nAb response has been mounted. The limited sample size of the study does not allow firm conclusions based on these findings, and further independent trials are required that assess other types of passive immune therapies in the same patient setting. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: U.S. government Operation Warp Speed and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adenosine Monophosphate/adverse effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/adverse effects , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/adverse effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antigens, Viral/blood , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Double-Blind Method , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Humans , Male , Medical Futility , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Failure
20.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 404, 2021 11 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745432

ABSTRACT

Identifying new effective treatments for the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), including COVID-19 ARDS, remains a challenge. The field of ARDS investigation is moving increasingly toward innovative approaches such as the personalization of therapy to biological and clinical sub-phenotypes. Additionally, there is growing recognition of the importance of the global context to identify effective ARDS treatments. This review highlights emerging opportunities and continued challenges for personalizing therapy for ARDS, from identifying treatable traits to innovative clinical trial design and recognition of patient-level factors as the field of critical care investigation moves forward into the twenty-first century.


Subject(s)
Precision Medicine , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Clinical Trials as Topic , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL