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1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335849

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, upstream interventions that tackle social determinants of health inequalities have never been more important. Evaluations of upstream cash transfer trials have failed to capture comprehensively the impacts that such systems might have on population health through inadequate design of the interventions themselves and failure to implement consistent, thorough research measures that can be used in microsimulations to model long-term impact. In this article, we describe the process of developing a generic, adaptive protocol resource to address this issue and the challenges involved in that process. Methods: We outline two types of prospective intervention based on trials currently under discussion. In developing the remainder of the resource, we establish six key principles, implement a modular approach based on types of measure and their prospective resource intensity, and source (validated where possible) measures and baseline data primarily from routine collection and large, longitudinal cohort studies. Through these measures, we seek to cover all areas of health impact identified in our theoretical model. Results: We find that, in general, self-reported measures alongside routinely collected linked respondent data may provide data capable of demonstrating comprehensive health impact. However, we also suggest that, where possible, physiological measures should be included to elucidate underlying biological effects that may not be accurately captured through self-reporting alone and can enable modelling of long-term health outcomes. Discussion: We suggest that while Open Access evaluation instruments are available and usable to measure most constructs of interest, there remain some areas for which further development is necessary. This includes self-reported wellbeing measures that require paid licences but are used in a range of nationally important longitudinal studies instead of Open Access alternatives.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-317873

ABSTRACT

The onset of the 2020 global COVID-19 pandemic led to a marked increase in positive discussion of Universal Basic Income (UBI) in political and media circles. However, we do not know whether there was a corresponding increase in support for the policy in the public at large, or why. Here, we present three studies carried out during 2020 in UK and US samples. In study 1 (n=802, April 2020), people expressed much stronger support for a UBI policy for the times of the pandemic and its aftermath than for normal times. This was largely explained by the increased importance they attached, in the pandemic context, to a system that is simple and efficient to administer, and that reduces stress and anxiety in society. In study 2 (n=400, May 2020), we pitted UBI against a conditional targeted social transfer system. Preferences for UBI were stronger for pandemic times than for normal times. This was partially explained by a number of perceived advantages, such as simplicity of administration and suitability for a changing world. In study 3 (n= 397, September 2020), we found that the headline results of studies 1 and 2 persisted six months after the onset of the pandemic, albeit with attenuated effect sizes. Our results illustrate how a changing social and economic situation can bring about markedly different policy preferences, through changes in citizens’ perceptions of what is currently important.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311291

ABSTRACT

In this working paper, we used a large national survey of American adults (N = 3,933) to estimate the effect of perceived social norms among friends and family (i.e., how often friends and family perform preventive behaviors, and whether they think it is important for the respondent to do so) on people’s own COVID-19 preventive behaviors. We found that perceived norms within these close relationships are often strongly associated with the adoption of preventive behavior--in some cases more than doubling the odds that an individual will engage in a given behavior.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311290

ABSTRACT

On April 3 2020, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended that all Americans wear face masks to prevent the spread of COVID-19. The announcement came during the fielding of a large, nationally-representative survey (N = 3,933) of Americans’ COVID-19-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, providing an opportunity to measure the impact of the CDC’s recommendation on public reported mask wearing and buying behavior. The study found significant increases in reported mask wearing (+12 percentage points) and mask buying (+7 points). These findings indicate the speed with which government recommendations can affect the adoption of protective behaviors by the public. The results demonstrate the importance of national leadership and communication during a public health crisis.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306220

ABSTRACT

Drawing on a scientific national survey (N = 3,933;including 3,188 registered voters), this report describes Americans’ risk perceptions and emotional responses to COVID-19 to inform the public health community, policymakers, and the public.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306219

ABSTRACT

Drawing on a scientific national survey (N = 3,933;including 3,188 registered voters), this report describes Americans’ coronavirus knowledge, attitudes, vulnerabilities, protective behaviors, and communication needs in an effort to inform the public health community, policymakers, and the public.

7.
J Med Ethics ; 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035232

ABSTRACT

At a time of COVID-19 pandemic, universal basic income (UBI) has been presented as a potential public health 'upstream intervention'. Research indicates a possible impact on health by reducing poverty, fostering health-promoting behaviour and ameliorating biopsychosocial pathways to health. This novel case for UBI as a public health measure is starting to receive attention from a range of political positions and organisations. However, discussion of the ethical underpinnings of UBI as a public health policy is sparse. This is depriving policymakers of clear perspectives about the reasons for, restrictions to and potential for the policy's design and implementation. In this article, we note prospective pathways to impact on health in order to assess fit with Rawlsian, capabilities and perfectionist approaches to public health policy. We suggest that Raz' pluralist perfectionist approach may fit most comfortably with the prospective pathways to impact, which has implications for allocation of resources.

8.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(9):1169-1171, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742501
9.
Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy ; : 1-22, 2020.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-885588
10.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S191-S192, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607249

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is projected to cause an economic shock larger than the global financial crisis of 2007-2008 and a recession as great as anything seen since the Great Depression in 1930s. The social and economic consequences of lockdowns and social distancing measures, such as unemployment, broken relationships and homelessness, create potential for intergenerational trauma extending decades into the future. In this article, we argue that, in the absence of a vaccine, governments need to introduce universal basic income as a means of mitigating this trauma. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Economic Recession , Income , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Psychological Trauma , Public Assistance , Adult , COVID-19 , Homeless Persons , Humans , Psychological Trauma/economics , Psychological Trauma/etiology , Psychological Trauma/prevention & control , Public Assistance/economics , Unemployment
11.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 110(6): 2020-2025, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-165410

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has dramatically reduced adult cardiac surgery case volumes as institutions and surgeons curtail nonurgent operations. There will be a progressive increase in deferred cases during the pandemic that will require completion within a limited time frame once restrictions ease. We investigated the impact of various levels of increased postpandemic hospital operating capacity on the time to clear the backlog of deferred cases. Methods: We collected data from 4 cardiac surgery programs across 2 health systems. We recorded case rates at baseline and during the COVID-19 pandemic and created a mathematical model to quantify the cumulative surgical backlog based on the projected pandemic duration. We then used the model to predict the time required to clear the backlog depending on the level of increased operating capacity. Results: Cardiac surgery volumes fell to 54% of baseline after restrictions were implemented. Assuming a service restoration date of either June 1 or July 1, we calculated the need to perform 216% or 263% of monthly baseline volume, respectively, to clear the backlog in 1 month. The actual duration required to clear the backlog highly depends on hospital capacity in the post-COVID period, and ranges from 1 to 8 months, depending on when services are restored and the degree of increased capacity. Conclusions: Cardiac surgical operating capacity during the COVID-19 recovery period will have a dramatic impact on the time to clear the deferred cases backlog. Inadequate operating capacity may cause substantial delays and increase morbidity and mortality. If only prepandemic capacity is available, the backlog will never clear.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Surge Capacity/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Elective Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Procedures and Techniques Utilization , SARS-CoV-2
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