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Lung India ; 39(3): 254-260, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1810864


Background: Little data exist on antifibrotic drugs for treating symptomatic patients with persistent interstitial lung abnormalities in the postacute phase of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Herein, we describe the physician practices of prescribing pirfenidone and nintedanib for these patients and the physician-assessed response. Materials and Methods: This was a multicenter, retrospective survey study of subjects administered pirfenidone or nintedanib for post-COVID-19 interstitial lung abnormalities. Data on the demographic details, comorbidities, abnormalities on the computed tomography (CT) of the chest, treatment, antifibrotic drug use, and physician-assessed response were collected on a standard case record pro forma. We explored physician practices of prescribing antifibrotics (primary objective) and the physician-assessed response (secondary objective). Results: We included 142 subjects (mean age, 55.9 years; 16.2% women) at eight centers. The most common abnormalities on CT chest included ground glass opacities (75.7%), consolidation (49.5%), reticulation (43.9%), and parenchymal bands (16.8%). Of the 5701 patients discharged after hospitalization at six centers, 115 (2.0%) received antifibrotics. The drugs were prescribed an average of 26 days after symptom onset. One hundred and sixteen subjects were administered pirfenidone; 11 (9.5%) received the full dose (2400 mg/day). Thirty subjects were prescribed nintedanib; 23 (76.7%) received the full dose (300 mg/day). Of 76 subjects with available information, 27 (35.6%) and 26 (34.2%) had significant or partial radiologic improvement, respectively, according to the physician's assessment. Conclusions: Antifibrotic agents were administered to a minority of patients discharged after recovery from acute COVID-19 pneumonia. Larger, randomized studies on the efficacy and safety of these agents are required.

Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327274


Background After admission to hospital, COVID-19 progresses in a substantial proportion of patients to critical disease that requires intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Methods In a pragmatic, non-blinded trial, 387 patients aged 40-90 years were randomised to receive treatment with SoC plus doxycycline (n=192) or SoC only (n=195). The primary outcome was the need for ICU admission as judged by the attending physicians. Three types of analyses were carried out for the primary outcome: “Intention to treat” (ITT) based on randomisation;“Per protocol” (PP), excluding patients not treated according to randomisation;and “As treated” (AT), based on actual treatment received. The trial was undertaken in six hospitals in India with high-quality ICU facilities. An online application serving as the electronic case report form was developed to enable screening, randomisation and collection of outcomes data. Results Adherence to treatment per protocol was 95.1%. Among all 387 participants, 77 (19.9%) developed critical disease needing ICU admission. In all three primary outcome analyses, doxycycline was associated with a relative risk reduction (RRR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR): ITT 31.6% RRR, 7.4% ARR (P=0.063);PP 40.7% RRR, 9.6% ARR (P=0.017);AT 43.2% RRR, 10.8% ARR (P=0.007), with numbers needed to treat (NTT) of 13.4 (ITT), 10.4 (PP), and 9.3 (AT), respectively. Doxycycline was well tolerated with not a single patient stopping treatment due to adverse events. Conclusions In hospitalized COVID-19 patients, doxycycline, a safe, inexpensive, and widely available antibiotic with anti-inflammatory properties, reduces the need for ICU admission when added to SoC.

Respirol Case Rep ; 9(8): e00780, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1328615


Severe asthma can be associated with eosinophilic or allergic phenotypes or both. Eosinophilic inflammation is associated with exacerbations and disease severity due to biological activity of interleukin-5 (IL-5). Patients with severe asthma have reported reduced lung function and poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and may require systemic corticosteroids for its management. Thus, treatment targeting IL-5 can help improve quality of life and reduce the use of systemic corticosteroids in severe asthma. Mepolizumab is approved for treating severe eosinophilic asthma as it helps reduce exacerbations, improve lung function and asthma control, and reduce the use of systemic glucocorticoids. This further helps in enhancing HRQoL of these patients. This case series includes four adult patients suffering from severe eosinophilic asthma who were treated with mepolizumab.