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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311067

ABSTRACT

Background: Severity of illness and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is consistently lower in women than in men. While this outcome difference is not well understood, focus on sex as a biologic factor may suggest potential therapeutic intervention for this disease. We assessed whether adding progesterone, a steroid hormone with immune-modulatory properties, to standard of care, would improve clinical outcomes of hospitalized men with moderate to severe COVID-19.Method: We conducted a Phase 1, randomised, open-label, controlled trial at a large academic hospital in Los Angeles, CA, USA, of subcutaneous progesterone in men hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19 and evidence of lower respiratory tract involvement. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1), using block randomization and a computer-generated randomization sequence, to receive standard of care (SOC) plus progesterone (100 mg subcutaneously twice daily for up to five days) or SOC alone. In addition to assessment of safety, the primary outcome was change in clinical status based on a 7-point ordinal scale noted at baseline compared to that on Day 7 of the trial. Control patients with significant clinical deterioration or absence of clinical improvement by Day 7 were permitted to cross over to receive progesterone therapy. Intention to treat analysis was performed and the patient’s last clinical assessment prior to receiving the study drug was imputed as the Day 7 assessment. Findings: Forty-two patients were enrolled in the study from April 27 to August 20, 2020;22 were randomised to the control group and 20 to the progesterone group. Of the 20 patients in the progesterone group, two withdrew from the study prior to receiving progesterone and were excluded from analysis. There was an overall improvement in clinical status from baseline to Day 7 in patients in the progesterone group as compared to controls (95% CI: 0-2;P = 0·010). There were no serious adverse events attributable to progesterone.Interpretation: Progesterone at a dose of 100 mg, twice daily by subcutaneous injection in addition to standard of care may represent a safe and novel approach for the treatment in men with moderate to severe COVID-19.Trial Registration: This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04365127.Funding Statement: The Institut Biochimique SA (IBSA, Lugano, Switzerland)Declaration of Interests: SG, YM, SP, TK, DN, JH, SC, RIG, JM, CB, ML, VT report grants and nonfinancial support from Institut Biochimique SA (IBSA, Lugano, Switzerland), during the conduct of the study;SG,SP report patent pending on method of use of progesterone agonist for treatment of COVID-19 VT reports grants from NIH/NIAID ACTT (ACTT 1-3), outside the submitted work. DS, HG declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the Cedars-Sinai Institutional Review Board (IRB).

2.
J Interprof Educ Pract ; 27: 100501, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1665542

ABSTRACT

Multidisciplinary collaboration is the hallmark of quality critical care. Prior studies have shown that nurses and physicians have different perceptions on communication and collaboration in the ICU. The Covid-19 pandemic has served to both strain and strengthen relationships between nurses and resident physicians in the ICU. This study used a survey-based approach sought to identify the similarities and differences between perception of collaboration between ICU nurses and resident physicians taking care of patients during the pandemic, and to identify whether they felt that the pandemic impacted the collaborative spirit of critical care. Although findings from this study suggest that overall residents and nurses perceive collaboration similarly, the COVID-19 pandemic may be differentially affecting the interdisciplinary dynamics of the ICU.

3.
Chest ; 160(1): 74-84, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258346

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severity of illness in COVID-19 is consistently lower in women. A focus on sex as a biological factor may suggest a potential therapeutic intervention for this disease. We assessed whether adding progesterone to standard of care (SOC) would improve clinical outcomes of hospitalized men with moderate to severe COVID-19. RESEARCH QUESTION: Does short-term subcutaneous administration of progesterone safely improve clinical outcome in hypoxemic men hospitalized with COVID-19? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a pilot, randomized, open-label, controlled trial of subcutaneous progesterone in men hospitalized with confirmed moderate to severe COVID-19. Patients were randomly assigned to receive SOC plus progesterone (100 mg subcutaneously twice daily for up to 5 days) or SOC alone. In addition to assessment of safety, the primary outcome was change in clinical status on day 7. Length of hospital stay and number of days on supplemental oxygen were key secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-two patients were enrolled from April 2020 to August 2020; 22 were randomized to the control group and 20 to the progesterone group. Two patients from the progesterone group withdrew from the study before receiving progesterone. There was a 1.5-point overall improvement in median clinical status score on a seven-point ordinal scale from baseline to day 7 in patients in the progesterone group as compared with control subjects (95% CI, 0.0-2.0; P = .024). There were no serious adverse events attributable to progesterone. Patients treated with progesterone required three fewer days of supplemental oxygen (median, 4.5 vs 7.5 days) and were hospitalized for 2.5 fewer days (median, 7.0 vs 9.5 days) as compared with control subjects. INTERPRETATION: Progesterone at a dose of 100 mg, twice daily by subcutaneous injection in addition to SOC, may represent a safe and effective approach for treatment in hypoxemic men with moderate to severe COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT04365127; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Progesterone/administration & dosage , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Clinical Protocols/standards , Drug Monitoring , Humans , Hypoxia/diagnosis , Hypoxia/etiology , Injections, Subcutaneous , Male , Middle Aged , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Pilot Projects , Progestins/administration & dosage , Severity of Illness Index , Treatment Outcome
6.
Cell Rep ; 34(1): 108590, 2021 01 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-978235

ABSTRACT

Recent studies have demonstrated immunologic dysfunction in severely ill coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. We use single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) to analyze the transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from healthy (n = 3) and COVID-19 patients with moderate disease (n = 5), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS, n = 6), or recovering from ARDS (n = 6). Our data reveal transcriptomic profiles indicative of defective antigen presentation and interferon (IFN) responsiveness in monocytes from ARDS patients, which contrasts with higher responsiveness to IFN signaling in lymphocytes. Furthermore, genes involved in cytotoxic activity are suppressed in both natural killer (NK) and CD8 T lymphocytes, and B cell activation is deficient, which is consistent with delayed viral clearance in severely ill COVID-19 patients. Our study demonstrates that COVID-19 patients with ARDS have a state of immune imbalance in which dysregulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses may be contributing to a more severe disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Transcriptome , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigen Presentation , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Interferons/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/metabolism , RNA-Seq , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/pathology
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236240, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670269

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Certain individuals, when infected by SARS-CoV-2, tend to develop the more severe forms of Covid-19 illness for reasons that remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the demographic and clinical characteristics associated with increased severity of Covid-19 infection. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. We curated data from the electronic health record, and used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of pre-existing traits with a Covid-19 illness severity defined by level of required care: need for hospital admission, need for intensive care, and need for intubation. SETTING: A large, multihospital healthcare system in Southern California. PARTICIPANTS: All patients with confirmed Covid-19 infection (N = 442). RESULTS: Of all patients studied, 48% required hospitalization, 17% required intensive care, and 12% required intubation. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, patients requiring a higher levels of care were more likely to be older (OR 1.5 per 10 years, P<0.001), male (OR 2.0, P = 0.001), African American (OR 2.1, P = 0.011), obese (OR 2.0, P = 0.021), with diabetes mellitus (OR 1.8, P = 0.037), and with a higher comorbidity index (OR 1.8 per SD, P<0.001). Several clinical associations were more pronounced in younger compared to older patients (Pinteraction<0.05). Of all hospitalized patients, males required higher levels of care (OR 2.5, P = 0.003) irrespective of age, race, or morbidity profile. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In our healthcare system, greater Covid-19 illness severity is seen in patients who are older, male, African American, obese, with diabetes, and with greater overall comorbidity burden. Certain comorbidities paradoxically augment risk to a greater extent in younger patients. In hospitalized patients, male sex is the main determinant of needing more intensive care. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying these findings.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus , Female , Humans , Los Angeles/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
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