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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 772239, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528825

ABSTRACT

This contribution explores in a new statistical perspective the antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 141 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients exhibiting a broad range of clinical manifestations. This cohort accurately reflects the characteristics of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Italy. We determined the IgM, IgA, and IgG levels towards SARS-CoV-2 S1, S2, and NP antigens, evaluating their neutralizing activity and relationship with clinical signatures. Moreover, we longitudinally followed 72 patients up to 9 months postsymptoms onset to study the persistence of the levels of antibodies. Our results showed that the majority of COVID-19 patients developed an early virus-specific antibody response. The magnitude and the neutralizing properties of the response were heterogeneous regardless of the severity of the disease. Antibody levels dropped over time, even though spike reactive IgG and IgA were still detectable up to 9 months. Early baseline antibody levels were key drivers of the subsequent antibody production and the long-lasting protection against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, we identified anti-S1 IgA as a good surrogate marker to predict the clinical course of COVID-19. Characterizing the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection is relevant for the early clinical management of patients as soon as they are diagnosed and for implementing the current vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin A/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
2.
J Thromb Haemost ; 20(2): 434-448, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488230

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Platelet activation and thrombotic events characterizes COVID-19. OBJECTIVES: To characterize platelet activation and determine if SARS-CoV-2 induces platelet activation. PATIENTS/METHODS: We investigated platelet activation in 119 COVID-19 patients at admission in a university hospital in Milan, Italy, between March 18 and May 5, 2020. Sixty-nine subjects (36 healthy donors, 26 patients with coronary artery disease, coronary artery disease, and seven patients with sepsis) served as controls. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients had activated platelets, as assessed by the expression and distribution of HMGB1 and von Willebrand factor, and by the accumulation of platelet-derived (plt) extracellular vesicles (EVs) and HMGB1+ plt-EVs in the plasma. P-selectin upregulation was not detectable on the platelet surface in a fraction of patients (55%) and the concentration of soluble P-selectin in the plasma was conversely increased. The plasma concentration of HMGB1+ plt-EVs of patients at hospital admission remained in a multivariate analysis an independent predictor of the clinical outcome, as assessed using a 6-point ordinal scale (from 1 = discharged to 6 = death). Platelets interacting in vitro with SARS-CoV-2 underwent activation, which was replicated using SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-viral particles and purified recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike protein S1 subunits. Human platelets express CD147, a putative coreceptor for SARS-CoV-2, and Spike-dependent platelet activation, aggregation and granule release, release of soluble P-selectin and HMGB1+ plt-EVs abated in the presence of anti-CD147 antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Hence, an early and intense platelet activation, which is reproduced by stimulating platelets in vitro with SARS-CoV-2, characterizes COVID-19 and could contribute to the inflammatory and hemostatic manifestations of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Blood Platelets , Humans , Platelet Activation , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
Mol Med ; 27(1): 129, 2021 10 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Host inflammation contributes to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 infection causes mild or life-threatening disease. Tools are needed for early risk assessment. METHODS: We studied in 111 COVID-19 patients prospectively followed at a single reference Hospital fifty-three potential biomarkers including alarmins, cytokines, adipocytokines and growth factors, humoral innate immune and neuroendocrine molecules and regulators of iron metabolism. Biomarkers at hospital admission together with age, degree of hypoxia, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatinine were analysed within a data-driven approach to classify patients with respect to survival and ICU outcomes. Classification and regression tree (CART) models were used to identify prognostic biomarkers. RESULTS: Among the fifty-three potential biomarkers, the classification tree analysis selected CXCL10 at hospital admission, in combination with NLR and time from onset, as the best predictor of ICU transfer (AUC [95% CI] = 0.8374 [0.6233-0.8435]), while it was selected alone to predict death (AUC [95% CI] = 0.7334 [0.7547-0.9201]). CXCL10 concentration abated in COVID-19 survivors after healing and discharge from the hospital. CONCLUSIONS: CXCL10 results from a data-driven analysis, that accounts for presence of confounding factors, as the most robust predictive biomarker of patient outcome in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Chemokine CXCL10/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnosis , Hypertension/diagnosis , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Comorbidity , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Coronary Artery Disease/immunology , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Creatine/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/immunology , Diabetes Mellitus/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hypertension/blood , Hypertension/immunology , Hypertension/mortality , Immunity, Humoral , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation , Intensive Care Units , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/pathology , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
4.
Cell Death Differ ; 28(11): 3125-3139, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241944

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection poses a major threat to the lungs and multiple other organs, occasionally causing death. Until effective vaccines are developed to curb the pandemic, it is paramount to define the mechanisms and develop protective therapies to prevent organ dysfunction in patients with COVID-19. Individuals that develop severe manifestations have signs of dysregulated innate and adaptive immune responses. Emerging evidence implicates neutrophils and the disbalance between neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation and degradation plays a central role in the pathophysiology of inflammation, coagulopathy, organ damage, and immunothrombosis that characterize severe cases of COVID-19. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting a role for NETs in COVID-19 manifestations and present putative mechanisms, by which NETs promote tissue injury and immunothrombosis. We present therapeutic strategies, which have been successful in the treatment of immunο-inflammatory disorders and which target dysregulated NET formation or degradation, as potential approaches that may benefit patients with severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Neutrophils/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Citrullination , Complement Activation , Humans , Neutrophils/metabolism , Platelet Activation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thrombosis/etiology
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 324: 261-266, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-799268

ABSTRACT

In patients with severe or critical Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) manifestations, a thromboinflammatory syndrome, with diffuse microvascular thrombosis, is increasingly evident as the final step of pro-inflammatory cytokines storm. Actually, no proven effective therapies for novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection exist. Preliminary observations on anticoagulant therapy appear to be associated with better outcomes in moderate and severe COVID-19 patients with signs of coagulopathy and in those requiring mechanical ventilation. The pathophysiology underlying the prothrombotic state elicited by SARS-CoV-2 outlines possible protective mechanisms of antithrombotic therapy (in primis anticoagulants) for this viral illness. The indications for antiplatelet/anticoagulant use (prevention, prophylaxis, therapy) are guided by the clinical context and the COVID-19 severity. We provide a practical approach on antithrombotic therapy management for COVID-19 patients from a multidisciplinary point of view.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , Evidence-Based Medicine/trends , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/physiopathology , Humans , Thrombosis/blood , Thrombosis/drug therapy , Thrombosis/physiopathology
6.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(5): 680-713, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639349

ABSTRACT

The 2020 Congress of the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH) was held virtually July 12-15, 2019, due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The congress convenes annually to discuss clinical and basic topics in hemostasis and thrombosis. Each year, the program includes State of Art (SOA) lectures given by prominent scientists. Presenters are asked to create Illustrated Capsules of their talks, which are concise illustrations with minimal explanatory text. Capsules cover major themes of the presentation, and these undergo formal peer review for inclusion in this article. Owing to the shift to a virtual congress this year, organizers reduced the program size. There were 39 SOA lectures virtually presented, and 29 capsules (9 from talks omitted from the virtual congress) were both submitted and successful in peer review, and are included in this article. Topics include the roles of the hemostatic system in inflammation, infection, immunity, and cancer, platelet function and signaling, platelet function disorders, megakaryocyte biology, hemophilia including gene therapy, phenotype tests in hemostasis, von Willebrand factor, anticoagulant factor V, computational driven discovery, endothelium, clinical and basic aspects of thrombotic microangiopathies, fibrinolysis and thrombolysis, antithrombotics in pediatrics, direct oral anticoagulant management, and thrombosis and hemostasis in pregnancy. Capsule authors invite virtual congress attendees to refer to these capsules during the live presentations and participate on Twitter in discussion. Research and Practice in Haemostasis and Thrombosis will release 2 tweets from @RPTHJournal during each presentation, using #IllustratedReview, #CoagCapsule and #ISTH2020. Readers are also welcome to utilize capsules for teaching and ongoing education.

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