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1.
Neurol Sci ; 2022 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955974

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune disease that targets acetylcholine receptor (AChR) of the neuromuscular junction. New-onset MG after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination has rarely been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We report about three patients who presented new-onset myasthenia gravis after receiving mRNA SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. The patients were all males and older than 55 years. All the patients presented with ocular and bulbar symptoms. The interval between vaccine administration and MG onset ranged from 3 days after the first dose to 10 days after the second dose. All the patients had elevated serum AChR antibodies and responded to pyridostigmine. Two out of three patients were successfully treated with IVIG or plasma exchange and with long-term immunosuppression. CONCLUSIONS: MG is a rare disease; clinicians should be aware of possible new-onset MG after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, especially with the current recommendation of booster doses. The hyperstimulation of the innate immune system or the exacerbation of a subclinical pre-existing MG could be possible explanations.

2.
Neuroradiology ; 64(7): 1367-1372, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626879

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is an uncommon but deadly event in patients with COVID-19 and its imaging features remain poorly characterized. We aimed to describe the clinical and imaging features of COVID-19-associated ICH. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective, case-control analysis comparing ICH in COVID-19 patients (COV19 +) versus controls without COVID-19 (COV19 -). Clinical presentation, laboratory markers, and severity of COVID-19 disease were recorded. Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) markers (intrahematoma hypodensity, heterogeneous density, blend sign, irregular shape fluid level), ICH location, and hematoma volume (ABC/2 method) were analyzed. The outcome of interest was ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) (defined as NCCT baseline ICH volume/onset-to-imaging time), whose predictors were explored with multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: A total of 33 COV19 + patients and 321 COV19 - controls with ICH were included. Demographic characteristics and vascular risk factors were similar in the two groups. Multifocal ICH and NCCT markers were significantly more common in the COV19 + population. uHG was significantly higher among COV19 + patients (median 6.2 mL/h vs 3.1 mL/h, p = 0.027), and this finding remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (systolic blood pressure, antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy), in linear regression (B(SE) = 0.31 (0.11), p = 0.005). This association remained consistent also after the exclusion of patients under anticoagulant treatment (B(SE) = 0.29 (0.13), p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: ICH in COV19 + patients has distinct NCCT imaging features and a higher speed of bleeding. This association is not mediated by antithrombotic therapy and deserves further research to characterize the underlying biological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anticoagulants , Biomarkers , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Hematoma/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Retrospective Studies
3.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750433

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

4.
eNeurologicalSci ; 22: 100306, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-987639

ABSTRACT

Posterior reversible encephalopathy cases are increasingly being reported in patients affected by COVID-19, but the largest series so far only includes 4 patients. We present a series of 6 patients diagnosed with PRES during COVID-19 hospitalized in 5 Centers in Lombardia, Italy. 5 out of the 6 patients required intensive care assistence and seizures developed at weaning from assisted ventilation. 3 out of 6 patients underwent cerebrospinal fluid analysis which was normal in all cases, with negative PCR for Sars-CoV-2 genome search. PRES occurrence may be less rare than supposed in COVID-19 patients and a high suspicion index is warranted for prompt diagnosis and treatment.

5.
Front Neurol ; 11: 1029, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-908891

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 outbreak, the Neurology and Stroke Unit (SU) of the hospital of Varese had to serve as a cerebrovascular hub, meaning that the referral area for the unit doubled. The number of beds in the SU was increased from 4 to 8. We took advantage of the temporary suspension of the out-patient clinic and reshaped our activity to guarantee the 24/7 availability of recombinant tissue Plasminogen Activator (rtPA) intravenous therapy (IVT) in the SU, and to ensure we were able to admit patients to the SU as soon as they completed endovascular treatment (EVT). In 42 days, 46 stroke patients were admitted to our hospital, and 34.7% of them underwent IVT and/or EVT, which means that we treated 0.38 patients per day; in the baseline period from 2016 to 2018, these same figures had been 23.5% and 0.23, respectively. The mean values of the door-to-first CT/MRI and the door-to-groin puncture, but not of the onset-to-door and the door-to-needle periods were slightly but significantly longer than those observed in the baseline period in 276 patients. On an individual basis, only one patient exceeded the door-to-groin puncture time limit computed from the baseline period by about 10 min. None of the patients had a major complication following the procedures. None of the patients was or became SARS-CoV2 positive. In conclusion, we were able to manage the new hub-and-spoke system safely and without significant delays. The reshaping of the SU was made possible by the significant reduction of out-patient activity. The consequences of this reduction are still unknown but eventually, this emergency will suggest ways to reconsider the management and the allocation of health system resources.

6.
Spinal Cord ; 58(9): 1045, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-689613

ABSTRACT

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

7.
J Neurol ; 267(11): 3157-3160, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-612464

ABSTRACT

Recently WHO has declared novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak a pandemic. Acute respiratory syndrome seems to be the most common manifestation of COVID-19. Besides pneumonia, it has been demonstrated that SARS-CoV-2 infection affects multiple organs, including brain tissues, causing different neurological manifestations, especially acute cerebrovascular disease (ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke), impaired consciousness and skeletal muscle injury. To our knowledge, among neurological disorders associated with SARS-CoV2 infection, no Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) has been described yet. Herein, we report a case of a 64-year old woman with COVID19 infection who developed a PRES, and we suggest that it could be explained by the disruption of the blood brain barrier induced by the cerebrovascular endothelial dysfunction caused by SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/virology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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