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Antioxidants (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566673


Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Aging and/or metabolic stress directly impact the cardiovascular system. Over the last few years, the contributions of altered nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) metabolism to aging and other pathological conditions closely related to cardiovascular diseases have been intensively investigated. NAD+ bioavailability decreases with age and cardiometabolic conditions in several mammalian tissues. Compelling data suggest that declining tissue NAD+ is commonly related to mitochondrial dysfunction and might be considered as a therapeutic target. Thus, NAD+ replenishment by either genetic or natural dietary NAD+-increasing strategies has been recently demonstrated to be effective for improving the pathophysiology of cardiac and vascular health in different experimental models, as well as human health, to a lesser extent. Here, we review and discuss recent experimental evidence illustrating that increasing NAD+ bioavailability, particularly by the use of natural NAD+ precursors, may offer hope for new therapeutic strategies to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases.

Diabetes Care ; 2021 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518447


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between acute-to-chronic (A/C) glycemic ratio and mortality and severity outcomes for patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 91 patients were included. We measured glycemia at admission and estimated the average chronic glucose levels to calculate the A/C glycemic ratio. The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital mortality, intensive care unit admission, and mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients had a primary outcome event, presenting a significant association with the A/C glycemic ratio (hazard ratio [HR] 1.57 [95% CI 1.14-2.15], P = 0.005). In comparisons with the 2nd tertile, the 3rd tertile of the A/C glycemic ratio was associated with the primary outcome (HR 3.39 [95% CI 1.31-8.75], P = 0.012). In the multivariate analysis, after additional adjustment for age, sex, comorbidities, inflammatory markers, and corticosteroid therapy, the association for the 3rd tertile (HR 3.96 [95% CI 1.35-11.59], P = 0.012) remained significant. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with T2D hospitalized with COVID-19, the imbalance between acute glycemia at admission and chronic metabolic control is associated with worse prognosis.

Front Public Health ; 9: 758347, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463526


Aim: The study aim was to assess the association of vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and severe outcomes in subjects admitted for COVID-19. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional analysis of pseudonymised medical record data from subjects admitted to the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Barcelona, Spain) for COVID-19 during March and April 2020. The composite primary study outcome was defined as death and/or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). Association between risk factors and study outcomes was evaluated by bivariate analysis, followed by logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 1,267 persons were hospitalised during the observation period. Overall, 14.9% of the subjects were on active vitamin D supplementation treatment before admission. The subjects in the vitamin D group were significantly older than subjects without vitamin D supplementation. We observed higher rates of the primary outcome (death and/or IMV) among the persons with previous use of vitamin D (30.1 vs. 22.9% in those not receiving treatment). In the bivariate analysis, previous use of vitamin D was positively associated with death and/or IMV [odds ratio (OR): 1.45 95% CI: 1.03; 2.04]; however, after adjustment for other risk factors this association disappeared (OR: 1.09 95%CI: 0.65; 1.81). Conclusion: We did not find an association between vitamin D supplementation before hospital admission and death and/or IMV in subjects admitted for COVID-19. The age and the burden of age-associated comorbidities were independently associated with the in-hospital events.

COVID-19 , Vitamin D , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dietary Supplements , Humans , Morbidity , SARS-CoV-2
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e051237, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322827


AIM: This study's objective was to assess the risk of severe in-hospital complications of patients admitted for COVID-19 and diabetes mellitus (DM). DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: We used pseudonymised medical record data provided by six general hospitals from the HM Hospitales group in Spain. OUTCOME MEASURES: Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables associated with mortality and the composite of mortality or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in the overall population, and stratified for the presence or absence of DM. Spline analysis was conducted on the entire population to investigate the relationship between glucose levels at admission and outcomes. RESULTS: Overall, 1621 individuals without DM and 448 with DM were identified in the database. Patients with DM were on average 5.1 years older than those without. The overall in-hospital mortality was 18.6% (N=301), and was higher among patients with DM than those without (26.3% vs 11.3%; p<0.001). DM was independently associated with death, and death or IMV (OR=2.33, 95% CI: 1.7 to 3.1 and OR=2.11, 95% CI: 1.6 to 2.8, respectively; p<0.001). In subjects with DM, the only variables independently associated with both outcomes were age >65 years, male sex and pre-existing chronic kidney disease. We observed a non-linear relationship between blood glucose levels at admission and risk of in-hospital mortality and death or IMV. The highest probability for each outcome (around 50%) was at random glucose of around 550 mg/dL (30.6 mmol/L), and the risks flattened above this value. CONCLUSION: The results confirm the high burden associated with DM in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 infection, particularly among men, the elderly and those with impaired kidney function. Moreover, hyperglycaemia on admission was strongly associated with poor outcomes, suggesting that personalised optimisation could help to improve outcome during the hospital stay.

COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology